Dissertation Traditionalism and Modernism in the UK

Philosophical and Historical Understanding of Traditionalism and Modernism in the UK

Chapter 1: Introduction

This dissertation is focused on enhancing philosophical and historical understanding of traditionalism and modernism in the UK. The principles of modernity have played an important role in order to contribute to the decline of faith in Britain. It is also concluded that the traditional principles are getting obsolete in a contemporary society and people living within the society are more likely to adopt the modern way of living. The present era is the era of materialism and all goods and services are transformed into commodities for sale which also includes healthcare, religion, education, personal identity and in some cases happiness and people are very less likely to emphasize on the social norms and traditions.

1.1 Main Objectives of the Study

The points of the exploration are:

  1. To provide a philosophical and historical understanding of Traditionalism and Modernism.
  2. To assess how commercialization and commodification have resulted in the decline of religiosity.
  3. To juxtapose the Modernist doctrine of egalitarianism to social solidarity within the construct of a mechanical society.
  4. To assess how objectification of human-beings has resulted in the decline of ‘Sacredness’ through the principles of sexuality.

Chapter 2- Literature Review

This chapter will comprise of a literature review that will examine various components of modernity including: attendance to consumerism and commodification; the ideology behind egalitarianism and its root to capitalism; the shift from social solidarity to individualism and the classical and modern approach to sexuality.

2.1 Attendance to consumerism and commodification

There is much research evidence that argues how faith has played a role during the post-Enlightenment era and pre- Enlightenment era. Sarah Williams in Buckingham (2003) argued that the working class have a more complex way of imagining their belief structures and suggested that this decline does not adequately explain these phenomena. Thus we need to look at the way individuals have conserved faith and how they translate their faith in the modern era.

This suggest that the decline in faith in Britain may be an exaggerated point, as times change individuals must learn to contemporize their Faith by bringing to life the traditional principles that they hold true and living them in a society which demands a modern form of life. In other words Balshaw (2004) says that “the Sacred does not disappear indeed in many ways it is becoming more rather than less prevalent in contemporary society” (Clements and Sarama, 2003).

According to Fredrick Michelle (reference) the Cold War symbolized the battle of two opposing and prominent ideologies, capitalism and communism. These ideologies were best represented by the United States and the U.S.S.R, who during the Second World War were allies in combating the forces of Nazi Germany. Their opposing ideologies twisted not just their own nations but the entire world into a state of conflict, which was perhaps one of the most trying periods in human history. The United States which was the beacon of a free market economy, characterized by democracy was in conflict with the U.S.S.R a totalitarian dictatorship characterized by communism. According to Michelle this conflict had an enormous impact on the social, economic and political sphere.

Coffield, Moseley and Eccleston (2004) added that the demise of the U.S.S.R led to a paradigm shift which resulted in capitalism being the dominant commercial culture globally. This global ideological take-over is more commonly referred to in modern times as consumerism, which is a powerful worldview that has deep effects on the attitude and way of living of people all around the world. Principally consumerism calls for all goods and services to be transformed into commodities for sale. This includes, but is not limited to healthcare, religion, education, personal identity and in some instances happiness as being means of commodification.

In this worldview therefore prosperity is measured in terms of material acquisitions namely in the form of money, as being the ultimate goal to a successful and meaningful life. This attitude has subsequently influenced societies view on religion (Cunningham, 1998). For instance take Christmas or Easter which are both sacred and public holidays in Britian, however According to Gertler and Vinodrai (2002) many grown-up members in religious rituals don’t intentionally comprehend the typical importance of these ceremonies. He added

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“You may ask many civilized people in vain for the real meaning of the Christmas tree or of the Easter egg. The fact is they do things without knowing why they do them. I am inclined to the view that things were general”.

Although it is more dominant in Western societies, there is also now an emergence of this worldview even in developing nations, which is leading more and more people to conform (out of necessity) to a commodified worldview (Hamilton, 2003). It would be reasonable to assume that this might infect the world of religion as well, so that commodification effects religious conceptions. Moving into a world of commodification whereby people are tied to seeing things as objects, objects that can be bought and sold. This is something I will investigate in my interview.

In addition, Hall and Thomson (2007) The Protestant Ethic & The Spirit of Capitalism reveals to us how Calvinists in the sixteenth and seventeenth century looked upon an individual’s prosperity inside business and reserve funds was an evidence that they were bound for salvation. We can relate this to the early beginnings of free enterprise and an individual’s obligation and prospects, with time the stress of religious beliefs was disintegrated as a free market system succeeded. With this new society came increasing rationalisation, this lead to disillusionment and definitely alongside that came a reduction in religious belief system and church participation.

As well, spiritual experience is something that can be understood, not by practice or by individual effort, but through a simple exchange, money for ablution. It is therefore not surprising that many religions today have adjusted their fundamental tenants and have become “consumer religions” Loveless (2002), or religions that promise material success by selling religious services. This it is not surprising that in this context religion, both new and old, take matters of the utmost sacredness and commercialize them. That is why in a country with such a rich history such as Japan a funeral can cost more than one million dollars!

 One of the major influencers of formative sociology of religion in Scanlon, Buckingham and Burn (2005) suggests that Western societies are undergoing an extensive period of secularization. He found that in Britain alone church attendance during the mid-nineteenth century had fallen by a staggering forty percent. Juxtaposed with a study conducted in the 1960’s where the decline in church attendance was only ten percent, this shows us that over the course of thirty years there was a decline of over thirty percent in attendance. This highlights that secularization has been part and parcel of the modernist philosophy and it can therefore be concluded that secularization is a component of modernism. Naturally this leads to a question, that is, to what extent has Faith decreased due to the forces of modernity?

2.2 The ideology behind egalitarianism and its root to capitalism

Weber accepted that religion (and particularly Calvinism) really served to offer ascent to the rise of modern capitalism, as he affirmed in his most celebrated and disputable work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

In The Protestant Ethic, Weber contends that capitalism emerged in Europe partially due to how the faith in destiny was deciphered by regular English Puritans. Puritan religious philosophy was dependent upon the Calvinist thought that not everybody might be spared; there was just a particular number of the choose who might avoid damnation, and this was built in light of God’s decided beforehand will and not on any activity you could perform in this life (Sefton-Green and Sinker, 2000).

For all intents and purpose, Weber noted, this was troublesome mentally: individuals were (naturally) restless to know whether they might be endlessly cursed or not. In this way Puritan pioneers started guaranteeing parts that in the event that they started doing great fiscally in their organizations, this might be one informal sign they had God’s approbation and were around the spared – yet just in the event that they utilized the tree grown foods of their work well (Thomson and Hall, 2006).

This alongside the logic suggested by monotheism prompted the advancement of normal accounting and the computed quest for fiscal achievement past what one required basically to live – and this is the “soul of capitalism.” Over time, the propensities connected with the soul of private enterprise lost their religious essentialness, and balanced quest for benefit turned into its own particular profit. Resulting to inequalities (class, race, gender, sex) in different institutions within society.

In 2005 Wilson concluded based on the finds of another study that only six percent of people in the Christian populous attend church (Thomson and Hall, 2006). His study outlines the pre-existing notion which has been upheld that there is a drastic decline of religious values, beliefs and practices which ultimately resulted in the loss of its social significance due to commercialism. To provide a succinct example of this, gone are the days when something as sacred as a wedding ceremony occurs in a church.

 Most dream weddings today are about the honeymoon not about the marriage itself. In nearly each culture, the marriage could be a vital life event that involves celebration in a very deeply personal and memorable method. People, place, and preparation are the foundation of the marriage, as couples style a ceremony that tells their story. While the motivations and preferences of every couple are terribly completely different, the deep desire to celebrate love in a very special and lasting method is consistent across ages and cultures. Wedding tourism, that is, voyaging universally with the end goal of getting hitched or commending a wedding (Sefton-Green and Sinker, 2000) has ended up progressively mainstream lately (Loveless, 2002).

Weddings have become a commodity, providing opportunities for every host destination to plug itself as an area wherever a special life event is commemorated in Associate in an unforgettable method (Boden, 2001). According to Cunningham (1998), a UK primarily based supplier of marketing research, one in 5 United Kingdom and Northern Ireland weddings takes place abroad; between 2005 and 2010, the amount of weddings abroad exaggerated by twenty seven percent. The need to honeymoon abroad has additionally been growing, as client preference analysis discovered that the share of consumers eager to honeymoon abroad has up from fifty seven percent to seventy percent within the period from 2008 to 2010 (Mintel, 2010).

It is therefore logical to conclude that commercialization and commodification are, as previously mentioned, characteristics of capitalism. Another facet which emerges from this ideological worldview is egalitarianism and in particular its connection with globalization. Cunningham (1998) highlights that religion is the “opiate of the masses” -a way for the elites to reinforce the oppression of the lower classes. This results to class inequalities taking place on both global and local level.

According to Cunningham (1998), economically speaking, 20% of the world population is rich. This shows that 80% of the worlds wealth is controlling the economics of the world. The social effect of globalization which promotes inequality is largely due to geo political influences and the internet. Berger (1967) states that with the fast development of technologies, media and sciences comes a decay of religion and an addressing of its place in the public eye. He happens to state that religion, previously, has held the explanations for our unanswerable inquiries and offered intending to lives. Notwithstanding that our inquiries are currently replied by science and innovation then the congregation and religion is no more required. This procedure is additionally alluded to as the Rational Choice Theory (RTC) of Religion.

The influence of the internet and the meta geo politics effects different countries. For instance, if one nation (Britain) is going through the credit crunch and recession process, this affects other countries within. For example the case of the Twin tower bombings in Washington paved the way for Muslims to be viewed as terrorist not only on a local front but on a global front too. This influenced the notion of individualism in religion, whereby members of society are somewhat forced to practice their faith behind closed doors.

2.3 Shift from social solidarity to individualism

Buckingham (2003) did an investigation of the Arunta native tribes in Australia. He found that religion has social capacities for its parts. Clements and Sarama (2003) discovered tribes treated most things as normal yet a few things were separate as taboo and move wonder. Durkheim contended these exceptional things speak to something of incredible force and in his view this can only be society. Thus worshipping these things is worshipping society, regardless of the possibility that these tribes weren’t mindful of it. Durkhiem argued that the collective consciousness of society was deteriorating and as a result, individualism has taken over.

Buckingham (2003) argues faith performs a social occasion by providing psychological support throughout times of emotional stress that may otherwise threaten social life. This shows how Religion plays a solidarity role in individuals life, by allowing them to have a sense of belonging.

Balshaw (2004) contended that Individualisation sees religion as progressively ‘a matter of individual decision’ not just as far as things like love, additionally as far as a ‘pick and blend ” approach to religions (joining together different plans and rationalities to make customized manifestations of conviction). Such individualisation advances to fulfil religious desires in circumstances where people ‘can no more depend on social foundations.

Religion is genuine for Durkhiem; it is an articulation of social order itself, and undoubtedly, there is no social order that has no religion. This shows that the standards of religion still however exist in modern society. Thus Religion is a declaration of our aggregate cognizance, which is the union of the greater part of our distinctive awareness, which then makes an actuality of its own. Along these lines without the faith in confidence we see an increment in Anomie. Where by people create a feeling of norm lessness which regularly has a pessimistic effect on their mental, physical and enthusiastic soundness. Also the development in libertarianism and independence heads a development in Def interest, which than prompts secularization and outcomes to the decay of confidence. Hence the value of egalitarianism leads to the breakdown of social solidarity whereby individualism is the core principle as appose to solidarity. As Wagner (2004) so skilfully expressed “But ultimately, modernity is about the increase of individualism and individuality.” whereby shared beliefs within ones community is not embraced through a collective consciousness but through individuality. For instance if one was invited to attend a wedding, one will only attend if the dates are suitable and fits the schedule of that particular individual.

“We must stop thinking of the individual and start thinking about what is best for society today” Hillary Clinton, (1993) however in modern day individuals represent their own particular interest toward oneself. Collaborating just to the extent that needed by Laws, Contracts and Public opinions that constrains their actions. This is something I will explore in my research, by inspiring my interviewee’s to discuss their personal views on religion in relation to solidarity or individualism.

2.4 Classical and modern approach to sexuality

In The Transformation of Intimacy (1992) Giddens alludes to the new examples of sexuality. He contends that the radicalized modernity is converting intimacy. Sexuality has ended up unreservedly drifting. argued that sexuality in modern society is fixated with the notion of sex being freed from both reproduction and subservience to a fixed object. This is something I will investigate in my research, by eliciting my interviewee on their perception of intimacy and sex in modern era.

In Addition, several factors have begun to wear down the power of clergy in the Western world: the shortage of male priests (Hoge 1987), non-ordained women performing clerical tasks (Wallace 1992), the presence of women clergy (Lehman 1987) and the changes they have introduced (Ice 1987), declining church attendance and participation. Thus this therefore highlights how sexuality tends to play a role of a limitation rather than a strength when discussing the decline of faith in Britain. Men no longer have the only authoritarian role within the church, women are allowed to participate in such activities.

The traditional point of sexuality – Clements and Sarama (2003) discusses the traditional Chinese philosophy in understanding sexuality. She argues that the Ying and Yang example whereby both sexes complement each other, whereby Yin and yang are complementary opposites within a greater whole. Everything has both yin and yang aspects, which continuously work and act together, never existing in total stasis. However in modern era, we see the notion of Ying and Yang deteriorate dramatically due to the increase of same sex relationships. This state’s how traditionalist philosophy has perhaps extended its branches and as a result of this, Traditionalism only exists to a certain extent in the modern era philosophy, due to features of modernity where individuals take for granted the notion of “free will” and use it perhaps for selfish and material advantage as appose to spiritual and generous way of living.

Cunningham (1998) had a fixation on sex. He developed a theory of how our sexuality begins at a very young age and develops through various fixations as one gets older. Many of his theories was based on pleasure principle, which was developed because of sex. In modern society, sex pleasure is not limited to genital satisfaction.

politically speaking, sexual abusive has only in recent years been brought to the surface in modern society. Individuals who were brought up in a mechanical society, whereby women were used as sex objects, rape victims, was more or less seen as a norm.

Angela Davis argued that women of a particular ethic background was more at a disadvantage of being abused as appose to their white counter part. However due to the various policies implemented in modern society such as the 1967 act on abortion, and the sexual effect Act implemented in 2003 shows how sexuality has shifted from traditional to modernistic views. Whereby Sex cannot be used as a patriarchy act rather it is know against the law to treat Women as sex objects,

It is also important to highlight the fact that homosexuality is booming in the UK, with the gay and lesbian marriages now being legalised. Almost three-quarters of a million UK adults say they are gay, lesbian or bisexual – equivalent to 1.5% of the population, a survey suggests. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) says 480,000 (1%) consider themselves gay or lesbian, and 245,000 (0.5%) bisexual. Not only does this show the shift in traditional to modern philosophy but also how the traditional notion of sex has completely and utterly been dismantled because of “new” types of sexuality.

In addition with the enhancement of medical practice and cures, doctors are now able to robot-ify the notion of reproduction through IVF and other medical procedures which kills the traditional approach to reproduce.

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The holiness of marriage is dead, Goode (1971) and Gibson (1994) contend that secularization has brought about marriage getting less consecrated and to a lesser degree a profound union and even more a viable responsibility which can without much of a stretch be relinquished. Research British Affiliation association indicates that 65 per cent of marriages no longer involve a religious ceremony, so many people do not attach much religious significance to their marriages. Not to mention the increased commercialisation and commodification of sexuality through pornography and mass media communications (Hall and Thomson, 2007)

Cash based foundations advertise private enterprise; wage obliges employment, and families oblige pay. Along these lines, the economy has profound/great impacts on examples of sexuality, particularly marriage and childbearing (Gertler and Vinodrai, 2002). The family has normally/(previously) been a solid organization, underpinned by both religion and the lawful framework. It is identified with a stress that attracts regard for family capacities of help and childrearing, typical practices of dependability, and the familial lust (illegal in the public arena). Medication has ended up more critical in the creation and control of sexuality, a pattern alluded to as the medicalization of sexuality (Tiefer, 2004). Traditional society might not have the intends to take care of sexual issues, for example, sexual transmitted deceases or abortion.

Chapter Three: Methodology

This chapter describes and explains the methodology deployed in this study and at the research methods reading which informed my choice of methods. This study is a practical project of field study type.

Chapter One introduced the subject of this dissertation, i.e. to investigate the nature and impact of national and local initiatives on geography teaching in schools with ICT (Information and Communication Technology). The focus is particularly the significant factors that influence and facilitate teachers’ ability to embrace ICT and incorporate it in their geography teaching and use it with pupils. I am interested in discovering what the main barriers are to teachers who do not integrate ICT in the geography curriculum. This had to be “doable within the time, space and resources available” (Blaxter, et. al., 1999, p.25) and was refined from the early rather ambitious aims to being more focused.

There are many models of the research process, most of them devised according to a series of stages. Cohen and Manion (1994) identify eight stages of action research, which appeared rather too scientific in approach, as I was seeking to “understand individuals’ perceptions of the world” (Bell, 1999, p.7). Other representations of the research process, including one with five stages of research shown in diagrammatic form showing design, sampling, data collection, data analysis and the report are presented by Blaxter et. al. (1999, p.8). This seems to be a rather over-simplification of a long and complex process.

Johnson identifies the following “stages of activity which must be worked through in carrying out and completing an investigation” (Johnson, 1994, p.172).

  1. Establishing the focus of the study
  2. Identifying the specific objectives of the study
  3. Selecting the research method
  4. Arranging research access
  5. Developing the research instrument
  6. Collecting the data
  7. Pulling out of the investigative phase
  8. Ordering the data
  9. Analysing the data
  10. Writing up
  11. Enabling dissemination

(Johnson, 1994, p. 172)

These and other “representations of the research process” such as those presented in diagrammatic format by Blaxter et. al. are “simplifications and idealizations of the research process” (Blaxter et. al. 1999, p.7). They acknowledge that the work of researchers is “anything but linear” (Blaxter et. al. 1999, p.7). They present some other models of research, including their own preferred “research spiral” which shows the process going through “a number of cycles, the effects of each one impacting upon the way in which successive cycles are approached” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.10). However, Johnson’s stages have guided my research as my preferred approach is through clearly defined small steps and which fits well with the model of geographical enquiry. Johnson also moves beyond the dissertation report as being the final stage, through to dissemination of the findings, which I identified early as being an objective of the research process.

Using the Johnson model the remainder of this chapter describes and explains the methods I undertook in the ten-month period of the research.

3.1 Establishing the focus of the study

This was relatively straightforward as it stemmed from my interest in geography as a school subject and in ICT as a tool for teaching and learning. Blaxter et. al. see research as being “powerfully affected by the researchers own motivations and values” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.15) and this seems to be essential in order to sustain the interest over a period of time, to be able to utilise strengths and prior knowledge and for the research to be useful in my professional life.

3.2 Identifying the specific objectives of the study

Cohen and Manion (1994) identify the first stage in the research process as being identification and formulation of the “problem”. There may not always be a “problem” as such as the focus for research, but in this instance there is. The problem identified is that despite statutory curriculum requirements and government initiatives to support the development of teachers skills and to provide curriculum materials, “the use of ICT is underdeveloped” and “new technology is used effectively in geography in only three schools in three” (Ofsted, 2001a, p.1).

At about the same time as I commenced this work in January 1999, the Government announced details of NOF training (funded through proceeds from the National Lottery) as an entitlement for all teachers. This was a particularly interesting development as it raised expectations for the integration of ICT in geography teaching and I decided that NOF training would become the focus for my research. The geography support team of Staffordshire Local Education Authority, of which I am one of two officers, was encouraged to bid for approved training provider status working in partnership with the School of Computing at Staffordshire University. The bid was successful and Staffordshire ICT for Teachers (SIfT) initially became a regional provider of geography ICT training for the NOF initiative and subsequently became a national provider, attracting teachers from schools all over England. Johnson advises that it is important to “attempt to define specific objectives in advance” and this development provided me with the trigger to assist in “identifying particular objectives” including help with “choosing the research method and deciding on the forms of access needed” (Johnson, 1994, p. 173).

Background reading and the literature review was an on-going process. Initial reading influenced “formation of research objectives” (Johnson, 1994, p.173) but new official reports were published during my research, specifically by Ofsted (2001b) and Teacher Training Agency, (2001), which had a significant impact on my work, predominantly to reinforce my own findings, so reading continued throughout the research period. In the literature review I have attempted to “provide the reader with a picture …. of the state of knowledge and of major questions in the subject area being investigated” (Bell, 1999, p.93).

3.3 Selecting the research method

Guided by Johnson (1994, p. 174) I found that selecting the research methods was a “crucial element” in the research process. I decided to use a variety of complementary research methods which were largely qualitative through interviews with teachers and observations and examination of documentary evidence in order to form case studies, but with some initial quantitative research to gather background evidence of teachers’ experience and attitudes, in order to set the scene.

Case studies were used to “follow up and to put flesh on the bones” (Bell, 1999, p.11) of the initial survey and to examine “participants’ perceptions and judgements” (Simons, 1996, p.229). Although case study research has had its critics in the past, it is “now widely accepted as a form of research” (Simons, 1996, p.225) and fits my objectives of investigating how individual geography teachers view the use of ICT in their teaching and how they are supported or otherwise in their schools. The notion of the “paradox of case study” is introduced by Simons (1996, p. 225) who claims “by studying the uniqueness of the particular, we come to understand the universal” Simons (1996, p. 231).

Johnson (1994, p.183) notes that “qualitative methods are slow” and indeed visiting six schools to interview eight teachers, was a time-consuming process, but one which I felt was worth pursuing in order to obtain a better illustration of the varied nature of the schools and to reflect the individual perceptions and experiences of the teachers during their NOF training.

3.4 Arranging research access

Through my work as Geography Adviser and as a member of the NOF Approved Training Provider, SIfT, I was “totally enmeshed in the subject” of my research and “an active participant” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p. 11). My close involvement is significant because it explains how I gained access to the teachers I interviewed and provided relatively easy access to geography teachers. I gave out questionnaires to teachers embarking on their NOF training with SIfT during the period September 2000 to April 2001. This work has been “affected by the researcher’s own motivations and values” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.15) although it does not aim to investigate the quality of a single training provider, the SIfT schedule and materials, but the wider impact of strategies and initiatives. This research therefore is as “open and transparent as possible” (Blaxter et. al, 1999, p.16). The sample of teachers is small, all undertaking their NOF training with SIfT but broadly representative of geography teachers from a range of schools, as shown in Chapter Four. Retrospectively, it could have been possible to include a school in this study which had not started NOF training yet, in order to make comparisons with those who had.

3.5 Developing the research instrument

Three main research instruments were used during this work. An initial survey questionnaire was given to teachers embarking on their NOF training with SIfT. The questionnaire evolved after being trialled with a teacher who was not part of the sample. Bell (1999) provides sound common-sense advice on designing and administering questionnaires. The questionnaire was designed to be quick and easy for teachers to complete, with several questions involving a choice of tick boxes, with a minimum amount of written response required. Twenty-nine questionnaires were returned, so it was a relatively small sample. The sample was a “non-probability sample” (Cohen and Manion, 1994, p.88) with the participants selected for “convenience” as they attended initial “face-to-face” training days at the start of their SIfT training. Most of the respondents completed the questionnaire during their training day and returned it at the end of the day, thus maximising the return with minimal inconvenience to the teachers.

The data from the returned questionnaires was collated and analysed and the findings can be found in Chapter Four. The questionnaire was designed to “gather data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the nature of existing conditions”, (Cohen and Manion, 1994, p.83). From this initial questionnaire a small sample of teachers was identified who would be “prepared to complete a more detailed questionnaire in 4 – 6 months time” which would form the basis of the more detailed case studies.

The next stage was undertaking the research to form the case studies. I visited each of the six schools and conducted a prolonged interview based on another, more detailed questionnaire with one or two members of the geography department. I support the view that “a major advantage of the interview is its adaptability” (Bell, 1999, p.135) and each interview was “semi-structured”, although based on the same questionnaire schedule, differed according to the responses of the teachers involved and their experiences set against different school contexts.

As part of the background to the school, reference was also made to the most recent Ofsted report available for the school. In most of the case study schools an examination was made of pupils’ work using ICT and in some cases informal lesson observations were undertaken during these visits. These were used to provide a recognised context for the case study and to draw some conclusions with Ofsted’s annual subject report.

3.6 Collecting the data

Questionnaires were distributed to and collected from teachers at the start of their NOF training, from September 2000 to April 2001. It was important to gauge the experiences of teachers prior to the start of their NOF training in order to gather information to provide the background to the case studies. The initial questionnaire was confidential, but teachers who were offering to take part in a follow-up questionnaire and school visit were invited to give their names. Anonymity in the report was promised and respected. The questionnaires provided a mixture of data. Some of the data was subsequently analysed in a quantitative way, largely to do with the background and experience of the teachers and the ICT resources which they had experience of. Other data, to do with perceptions of ICT in geography and the NOF training was more qualitative.

The fieldwork period took place in May and June 2001 and was a “distinct and discrete phase of the investigation” (Johnson, 1994, p.177). During this time visits were made to six schools, and eight teachers were interviewed based on the follow-up questionnaire and some classroom observations and scrutiny of pupils’ work were also undertaken. The interviews were used to gather information about teachers’ experiences and opinions of NOF and provision of ICT support in school and their plans for the future with regard to ICT developments. These visits took place four to eight months after teachers had started their NOF training, so that the case studies could start to examine the impact of the training. The interviews, classroom observations and Ofsted reports provided more detailed qualitative data used to form the case studies, which can be read in Chapter Four.

3.7 Pulling out of the investigative phase

The fieldwork period was a most significant part of the research and the part in which I found I was “investing most in the study, by way of time and personal involvement” (Johnson, 1994, p. 177). I tried to avoid the “open-ended period of data collection” (Johnson, 1994, p. 178) as I intended to include six case studies from the start. However, because this stage was arguably the most interesting and rewarding, it was tempting to visit more schools, although this was impossible because of time constraints. Each visit lasted on average three hours, which included a general tour of the geography department, the interview, classroom observation and talking to pupils.

The research was intentionally undertaken during teachers’ involvement in significant professional development, as this was critical to the issue. However, some schools were still at an early stage in their development of ICT in geography and in School C, Teacher 5 said “Come back in January and see what we have done then” when developments would be further embedded in practice. This is a frustration of small-scale research, which in some ways never seems complete.

3.8 Ordering the data

All the questionnaires were “collated and classified” and kept for subsequent analysis and held on file even after the research was complete so that the researcher was “prepared to be accountable for the investigations” (Johnson, 1994, p.179). Field notes were written up based on the interviews and classroom observations.

3.9 Analysing the data

The data collected from the questionnaires and school visits form much of the substance of Chapter Four, to help evaluate the specific experience of some teachers in order to make generalisations. The tension between the study of the unique and the need to generalise is necessary to reveal both the unique and the universal and the unity of that understanding (Simmons, 1996, p.238). The findings from my research are compared to findings from my background reading and of official reports from Ofsted and TTA, to avoid the weakness noted by Johnson that in many dissertations “little use is made of the data collected in the eventual discussion of the thesis topic” (Johnson, 1994, p. 179). The initial questionnaires were analysed and the data is presented in Chapter Four in statistical and tabular format where appropriate. This is compared with research from elsewhere, especially with findings from Ofsted and TTA. The data collected from interviews and classroom observations during school visits form the basis of the case studies partly though quotations from teachers and to make recommendations which can be found in Chapter Five.

3.10 Writing up

The aim of this stage was so that “the overall conclusions or ‘message’ of the research be summarized in an assimilable and memorable form” (Johnson, 1994, p. 179) and to communicate “the researchers empirical experience” to a wider audience (Johnson, 1994, p. 180). The case studies in Chapter Four are “ideally suited to the needs and resources of the small-scale researcher” (Blaxter et. al., 1999, p.66).

3.11 Enabling dissemination

It was important to research an aspect of education that was topical and relevant to today’s teachers. It was an important part of the research process that the findings and particularly the recommendations are made available to a wider audience of teachers through my work as Adviser and as a member of the Geographical Association’s ICT Working Group. Consequently some of the findings, results and conclusions will be used on courses. I feel that I have a “duty to make dissemination possible” (Johnson, 1994, p. 180) to the rest of the SIfT Geography team in order to influence future developments and strategies.

Chapter 4 – Findings and Analysis

In this chapter the results of the data analysis are presented. The data were collected and then processed in response to the problems posed in chapter1 of this dissertation. Three fundamental goals drove the collection of the data and the subsequent data analysis. The findings presented in this chapter demonstrate those goals were to develop a base of knowledge about the relationship between the individual and their own faith in modern society. Their interpretation of the scared holidays such as Christmas and Eid. And their personal views on sexuality and faith. These objectives were accomplished.

One of the first inquiries for my Investigation is to see whether you belong with a religious affiliation? my outcomes uncovered larger part of my members had a place with a religious association. However during my semi structured interview, I came across a candidate who was atheist in their views of the manifestation of the divine. This highlighted a slight increase as non-religious believers in UK. As stated by the 2001 consensus In the UK, the individuals who portray themselves as non-religious have climbed from 31% to half between 1983 and 2009 as stated by the British Social Attitudes Survey’s 28th report issued in 2011.

Perfect Research Dissertation Traditionalism and Modernism in the UK

Perfect_Research

The data reported in this project during my focus group method, suggested that participants were only answering the question based on what their fellow group members would answers were. During my focus group interview I found that only one participant agreed to belong to a religious affiliation. However when leading my semi structured interview, I found that my members were more calm in noting my inquiries in a truthful way without needing to stress over different members replies. This brought about my information to overflow legitimacy.

Furthermore when asking my participants, weather they attend a place of worship. I found that throughout my centre gathering strategy, members non-verbal communication were unbelievably unfriendly with dubious answers, for example, “as often as one can attend”  . Applicant B, throughout the focus group interviews included “I attend my place of worship because I am born into a faith and therefore I must practice by it”  This explanation specifically highlighted to me how maybe the more established era have neglected to install in the more youthful era the exclusive explanations for the importance of heading into a place of worship.

What was staggering is when asked the same inquiry throughout my semi structured interview, participants were more quiet into going in-profundity with their replies. Applicant D for example said “I attend my place of worship because it is a part of my identity, tradition and history. It provides a sense of solidarity within the community and family and gives us a sense of belonging “. Needless to say, the general contention here to highlight is the way that 75 percent of my participants concluded up in not having attended a place of worship. What’s more, when asked what relatives are less averse to go to a place of worship, majority of my participants addressed the elderly parts of the house hold. The older generation are more religious than the youthful ones; ‘for many young individuals, disengaged conviction is, progressively, offering path to no conviction whatsoever’ (Davie, 1990: 462).

This indeed highlights how the more seasoned era who have existed by their Faiths standards and customs, principles and ethics as pair to the new era who fit in with the post illumination period have diverse perspectives on attending a place of worship.

Moreover, the commodification of religion was highlighted throughout my research. When my participants were asked why they attended a place of worship, candidate A answered” was only a result of a special occasion such as Holi” . This demonstrated to me to what degree commodification has really occurred in advanced time. Christmas and Holi are holy days which have obscure philosophical implications which happened to be obfuscated because of the strengths of a free market system and consumerism. Whereby everything including religious, occupation, wellbeing, and training is utilized as a product to upgrade capital for public opinion

Interestingly, a census completed by the Yougov in walk 2012 in the interest of the British Humanitarian Association demonstrated most individuals in Britain (63%) had not attended a place of worship, 43% of individuals attended a place of worship over a year ago and 20% of individuals had never attended. Only 9% of people had attended a place of worship within the last week. Furthermore statistics collected by the National Centre for Social Research in 2009, showed membership of most religions is lower now than it was 30 years ago.

Question 5 in my research was revolved around identity and what element helps the essentialness of their character (religion, family, occupation, training) . Throughout the focus group discussion, all the members said either Family or Education was a number one necessity in their lives. However not one member picked religion as an essential element that shapes their character. Similarly when conducting my semi structured interview, the same results were presented to me in contrast to focus groups . Greater part of the members said “occupation” as their component which shapes their character. Candidate A discussed how ” imperative it was for them to have a better quality of life therefore, working would be the only solution. I can buy all the things I want too”. This fortified Durkhiem belief system of independence. Whereby individuals in the public arena today is really so self image orientated. the “I” is more essential than “we”. Realism over rides mysticism in current.

The third aim of my research was focused around the traditional and modern principles of sexuality. With a recent report stating that 4 out of 10 marriages are expected to end in divorce (Morrison, 2002). This could be said to show a declining importance of religious morals and beliefs in people’s lives. At the point when participants were requested their opinion on “sex before marriage”. The effects of this was shocking without a doubt with 99 percent of my members concurred with the idea of having intercourse before marriage. Only one participant did not agree with this thought.

What was much all the more amazing, is that the discourse changed from sex before marriage to what the Holy religious scriptures sayings were in reference to sexuality. This demonstrated to me, that my members were completely mindful of the conventional perspective of sexuality, then again they pick not to pay heed to that. It is as though Faith has not part in Modernity.

When asking participants whether religion is a big part of their everyday life? is it a private or public matter? Focus groups, outcomes demonstrated a large portion of my members concurred with religion being an imperative part of their lives, in any case they included that religion in particular a private matter. This to me highlights the idea of independence existing in modern society. It doesn’t however indicate that there has been a decrease in religion but instead we immerse ourselves into the modern era, we accumulate characteristics of the modernity in order for us to fit in within society.

Semi structured interviews showed 100 percent of my members concurred with religion being a private matter. Applicants and B and C went further on by examining how the global forces have impacted their choice in making religion as a private matter. Candidate B utilized the illustration of the 9/11 bombings making it perilous for Muslims to stroll around out in the open because of generalization.

Chapter 5: Conclusion

On the basis of the above discussions, it can be concluded that the principles of modernity have played an important role in order to contribute to the decline of faith in Britain. It is also concluded that the traditional principles are getting obsolete in a contemporary society and people living within the society are more likely to adopt the modern way of living. The present era is the era of materialism and all goods and services are transformed into commodities for sale which also includes healthcare, religion, education, personal identity and in some cases happiness and people are very less likely to emphasize on the social norms and traditions (Short, 2003). The people nowadays are measuring prosperity in monetary terms and it is considered to be the ultimate goal to a successful and meaningful life. According to Clements (2010), the emphasis of materialism in the modern era is due to decline of faith and misconceptions about the religion and people are not following the religious values which is very alarming situation. This can be understood from the fact that attendance in the churches is continuously decreasing in many countries of the world (Calthorpe and William, 2001). It is not only very common in the developed nations like United Kingdom but it is emerging in the under developed countries. One of the main reasons behind this is faith has come to mean an acceptance of creedal truths as objective facts and the religious scholars are not successful in convincing people about God’s existence. There are significant percentage of people who believe that existence of God is an Illusionary thing. Religion also has been used by the elites in order to exploit the lower classes which are creating inequalities both at the global and local level. This is more common in those countries where the literacy rate is low and people don’t have necessary awareness about their rights. The lack of awareness regarding the individual rights results in exploitation which is also harmful for the society. Although there is no religion in this world which allows exploitation of the people, however, the negative use of religion is also common in some parts of the world.

The recent development of technologies, sciences and media has also contributed significantly in order to reduce the interest of the people in religion. The strong confidence of the people on science and technological progress has decreased their faith on religion. The people living in different parts of the world have started believing that religion has nothing to do with the modern society. However, it is a fact that religion plays an important role in order to bring peace and comfort in the people life by allowing them to have a strong sense of belonging. It has been used by the people in order to improve their quality of life and bring prosperity in the society by following the ethical and moral standards. On the basis of the discussions which are made in the literature review chapter, it is also concluded that in the present era, there is a strong shift from social solidarity to individualism. This shows that instead of thinking about the over the overall society, the people are more concerned about their individual benefits. Although the standard of religion still exists in the society, however, people all over the world are not following the religious values or standards in order to spend their life. It is a fact that few decades back religion was considered one of the most important factors that can help to transform the life of the people. However, in the present world, there is a slight increase in the non religious believers in the UK and all over the world. The individuals who claim themselves as non-religious are increasing and there are very few people who are ready to show their religious affiliations.

The discussions made in the research findings chapter helps to explain that older generation were more religious than the youthful ones and if necessary measures are not taken in order to increase the religious affiliations of the people then after few years there will be very small percentage of people who will claim themselves as religious. According to Ofsted (2009), nothing is more dangerous than the elimination of religious values from the society. The discussion reflects that there are very few people nowadays who believe that religion is an important element that shapes their character and help to improve their life. The high modernity in the society is as a result of capitalism and industrialization and it is more likely to reorder to natural and social world. This helps to understand that there will be a strong impact of capitalism and industrialization on the society (Short, 2003). It is also concluded that due to capitalist and industrial development, people are more concerned about movement of goods and capital and there is a strong decline on faith and on the traditional forms of society. The research objective of providing a philosophical and historical understanding of Traditionalism and Modernism has been achieved through the discussions which are made in various sections of the dissertation. The discussions made in the literature review chapter reflect that few decades back people had deeper respect for long held cultural and religious values and these values were considered to be an important part of the society. Therefore, people were more traditional and prefer to adopt the traditional values. However, in the modern era, there is a criticism on traditionalism and majority of the researchers believe that traditional values restricted both individual freedom and the pursuit of happiness (Ofsted, 2009). This increases the importance of modernism and it has motivated the people to follow the modern values, norms and traditions.

The proponents of modernism believes that in order to grow in the society, exploit the economic opportunities in an effective manner and achieve the desired level of economic growth and prosperity, it is essential to follow the modern values because the traditional methods and values are no longer effective in the modern society (Clements, 2010). There is a common perception that traditional values were more effective in the past and the present world demands implementation of the modern values. However, there are also some researchers who believe that it is important to have a combination of modern and traditional values because both values have significant importance in improving the overall society (Stark and Laurence, 1992). The research objective of assessing how commercialization and commodification have resulted in the decline of religiosity also has been achieved. The discussion made under the literature view section of the research shows that in the modern era of globalization and capitalism, the different societies of the world are more focused on commercialization and there is a strong decline of religiosity. One of the main reasons behind this is everything in the present era has been commercialized and people have started believing that implementation of the religious values could create hurdles in the growth and development of the society. This opinion is not correct because religion always have an important role in order to meet the needs and requirements of the humans and society (Richard, 1978).

References

Balshaw, M. (2004). “Risking creativity: building the creative context”.Support for Learning 19 (2): 71-76.

Buckingham, D. (2003). “Living in a young country?: youthful creativity and cultural Policy in the United Kingdom”. Youth Cultures: Texts, Images and Identities. Eds. K. Mallan and S. Pearce. Westport Conneticut, London: Praeger: 92-107.

Clements, D. H. and Sarama, J. (2003). “Strip mining for gold: Research and policy in educational technology – A Response to “Fool’s Gold” EducationalTechnology Review 11 (1): 7-69.

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E., Eccleston, K. (2004). Learning Styles and Pedagogy in Post-16 learning. London: Learning and Skills Research Centre.

Cunningham, H. (1998). ‘Digital Culture – the view from the dance Floor’ in Digital Diversions: Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia. Ed. Sefton-Green, J. London: UCL Press: 128-148.

Gertler, M. S., Florida, R. Gates, G. and Vinodrai, T. (2002). Competing on Creativity: Placing Ontario’s Cities in North American Context. Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Enterprise, Opportunity and Innovation and the Institute of Competitiveness and Prosperity. Ontario, Canada.

Hall, C. and Thomson, P. (2007). “Creative Partnerships? Cultural policy and inclusive arts practice in one primary school.” British Educational Research Journal 33 (3): 315 – 329.

Loveless, A. M. (2002). Literature Review in Creativity, New Technologies and Learning. NESTA Futurelab.

Scanlon, M., Buckingham, D. and Burn, A. (2005). “Motivating Maths: Digital Games and Mathematical Learning”. Technology, Pedagogy and Education 14 (1): 127-139.

Sefton-Green, J. and Sinker, R Eds. (2000). Evaluating Creativity: making and learning by young people. London and New York: Routledge.

Thomson, P. and Hall, C (2006) Seminar presentation, Centre for the Study of Children Youth and Media, January 16th 2006. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Marketing Project Brand Loyalty Customer Behavior

How Does Brand Loyalty Influence Customer Behavior?

The rise in living standards, ease of accessibility to finance coupled with a wide variety to choose from has made consumer durable market to grow with a rapid rate. Many players are getting into the market. With the advances in communication and technology, new lifestyles and the quest to appear young and beautiful, the demand for quality beauty products has increased significantly. Consumer quality sector is characterized by the emergence of exchange offers, discounts and intensive competition. People nowadays want to imitate in regards to dressing, language, and politics among other lifestyle aspects. The increasing population is bombarded with information about maintaining a youthful look, making women seek for cosmetics that suit them.  With this knowledge in mind, beauty manufacturing product companies make every effort to brand them to capture the booming market. Companies are competing on the basis of firm grasp of the local and international market, their well acknowledged brands and hold over wide distribution network. The penetration level of consumer products remains high.

This research is scoped down to understand the relationship between consumer behavior and brand loyalty, factors affecting consumer decision making, the role of brand loyalty in consumer durables and the position of the individual consumer in the segment. The path forward will be to study the secondary data for industry overview, collect primary data for more insight and  derive conclusions based on primary and secondary data. The research findings will be addressed based on the theories of consumer buying behavior and brand loyalty.

Organizations must engage in making strategic decisions that are capable of improving the firms’ image so that they can have an advantage over competitors. To be specific, these image enhancing strategies ensure that the organization increase the loyalty of the current customers. In addition, the image enhancing strategies should help in the attraction of new customers to the organization. Strategic decisions that can bring enhanced image to the organization have included the selection of target markets, and modification of products to suit the demands of the customers. Other strategic decisions on prices, location of products and services, promotional efforts, and operating policies help in improving the organizations’ image.

The implementation of these strategies ensures that there is a solid background for effective image in the organization. An organization’s image ensures that if there is something about it that is not known, the knowledge the customers have on the organization fills the void. The main concern of this research is to determine whether the perception about the brand image affects customer behavior.

Research objectives

The interest of the research is to determine if brand loyalty influences consumer behavior. This study would be of value to those organizations concerned about the society and those concerned with the attaining off the highest possible profit. Further, the study aims to find if consumers have positive attitudes for those organizations that improve their brand loyalty and social responsibility.

Specific research objectives include:

  1. To find the relationship between consumer behavior and brand loyalty.
  2. To find out whether consumer behavior leads to change in the brand image quality, for instance, product quality or service quality.
  3. The influence of customer satisfaction on the brand’s image
  4. Does consumer behavior affect brand image?
  5. Does consumer behavior lead to change in the brand image quality?
  6. Does customer satisfaction affect brand image?

Research questions

Literature Review

The main focus of this study is to measure the attitudes of customers in relation to brand loyalty and to ascertain its influence of this attitude on brand loyalty. Study of attitudes enables organization managers to answer questions as to why a consumer purchased one product over another. The understanding of the consumer attitude towards particular products ensures that they come up with strategies and decisions on major products and market decisions.

The image associated with a particular product or service ensures that it has a competitive advantage over other products and services. A company’s brand is valuable strategic asset in achieving goals and objectives. Brand loyalty can be referred to as the consumer decision; whether conscious or unconscious concerning the use of a product or service. It may also refer to the intention to buy or use a particular product for a long duration of time. Brand loyalty is achieved due to the right features, and the quality of the brand. Quality of the product must be at the right price for the consumer to perceive the brand as being loyal to their needs. Organizations can change consumer behavior concerning a particular product or service through advertising. Advertising ensures that consumers acquire new habits, and instill those habits by telling the consumers how the product is of value to their money. Consumers should also be encouraged to continue using the products and services in the future (Hoyer and Maclnnis, 2008, p. 27).

According to Pride and Ferrel (2008, p.123), the main reason why organizations do not have strong brand loyalty is because they are not familiar with various ways of disseminating a strong and clear message that distinguishes their product with that of the competitor. In addition, the message should distinguish the product in a positive and memorable manner. The major challenge of organizations is to avoid the disadvantages of portraying a particular product or service as having negative image. An organization’s image should not be viewed in terms of the product and service attributes; the organization’s philosophies concerning environmental management, philanthropy, and ethical considerations are critical in influencing consumer behavior.

Societal Conscious Marketing

Most organizations have adopted marketing strategies that focus on societal needs. Each of these strategies is philosophical or operational concepts used by organizational leaders to enhance the objectives of their businesses. The following are some of the concepts widely used in organizations (Phillips, 2010, p. 45).

  1. Product concept: products should be produced in large volumes since all of it can be sold to the consumers
  2. Selling concept; products can only be consumed if they are heavily promoted
  3. Product concept; consumers will buy high quality products that are within their price range
  4. Marketing concept: specific customer demands can only be met if organization produces products that are equal or better than those of the competitor. In addition, the products should be priced lower than the competitor.
  5. Societal marketing concept: This term involves marketing in a manner that does not harm the society, people, and the environment. Societal marketing concept is motivated by the need to satisfy direct customers and other constituents in the market.

Brand loyalty can be exercised in several ways. The main activities that organizations can do to improve brand loyalty include environmental friendly activities, philanthropy, ethical activities with local, national, and international communities, customers, and employees. Environmentally friendly activities can include recycling, waste reduction, and other strategies aimed at minimizing the organization’s impact on the environment. Philanthropic activities include engaging donations of money, food, facilities, and time. These activities are classified under the title known as cause related marketing (Kahren, 2009, p.36).

According to Dutton (1997), organizations have been turning philanthropy activities inward towards their employees. This is done through paying them in order to volunteer for their favorite charities. She asserts that words like “ethics’, honesty, truth and trust are good sentiments. She, however, notes that they mean nothing if they are not adopted by organizations. Ethical activities include using different hiring practices and employee relations such as high moral values, fair pay, equal treatment, and equal opportunity for all workers. Organizations that do not treat workers fairly have the risk of lowering their brand image. Brand image should start with internal operations; there is no point of trying to show the external clients that business ethics are good while simultaneously engaging in unethical activities towards the employees. Employees play an important role in advertising the organization to outside clients more than any other marketing strategy.

Marketing Dissertations 300x225 Marketing Project Brand Loyalty Customer Behavior

Marketing-Dissertations

The question of how brand loyalty affects product evaluation was examined by Brown and Dacin (1997). Their study looked into the differences between the impact of organization brand loyalty which include the organization’s ability to produce and deliver quality products and services and the corporate social responsibility’s impacts on consumers. In their first research, students analyzed their hypothetical scenarios. The outcome was that brand loyalty had a significant effect on the way consumers evaluated the product attributes and the overall image of the organization. Further, the authors found out that social responsibility had no direct impact on the organization’s image. Their second study found out that social responsibility became significant predictor of product loyalty in the consumers and its evaluation.

According to Kim (1996) product demand is determined by non-product factors such as cleanliness, public relations, atmosphere, advertising and the convenience of the brands’ locations. In any organization, quality of products can be determined according to the consumer attitude towards the product with other products available to the consumer in the market.

“Perceived quality is different from objective or actual quality, a higher level abstraction rather than a specific attribute of a product, a global assessment that in some case resembles attitude, and a judgment usually made within a consumer’s evoked set” (Zeithaml, 1988, p.4).

Zeitmal further assert that few consumers are able to analyze and measure the objective properties of a product. This is because the objective assessment depends on the verifiable standards, the objective measurement can be questioned because it depends on who set the standards.

Theoretical framework

The A Priori Approach

According to Lunn (2011), the theory introduces theories and concepts from other disciplines including behavioral sciences. The value of behavioral sciences has been used in consumer knowing what the consumer wants. Well known examples are included in the manifestations of motivational research and such attitude theories as those of Festinger and Fishbein. The A Priori approach involves giving the consumer an all embracing label such as “economic man”, “problem solver”, “learner”, and “existentialist”. The strength of the a priori lies in the organization and the systematic basis of knowledge provided about certain aspects of the consumer.

Brand Loyalty Theory

According to Katz (1960), Brand loyalty theory has three distinct dimensions. The first dimension is referred to as emotive tendency towards products and services. The emotive tendency refers to the consumer likes and dislikes which is manifested on how they purchase a particular brand in the market. The second dimension is known as evaluative tendency towards products and services. Katz refers to this tendency as positively biased evaluation of a product or service. Organizations use positive characteristics to define brand utili6ty to the customers. The evaluative tendency of the product or service can also be determined from past experience in using the brand.

Behavioral tendency towards the brand is the next dimension. Katz (1960) refers to the behavior tendency as the biased responses consumers have towards a particular product or service regarding its procurement, purchase and consumption characteristics. Consumer characteristics such as shopping, paying for the product, as well as its consumption determine the behavior tendency. Behavior tendency is developed after using the product for a long period of time. In addition, behavior tendency can be developed from good or bad tendencies toward other brands.

Black Box Theory of Behaviorism

Sandhusen (2000) assert that the black box model is an interaction of several perspectives concerning a specific brand. The perspectives include the stimuli, consumer characteristics, choice patterns and consumer responses. The focus of the organization is not in the internal processes within the customer: the organization focuses on the relation between stimuli and response of the customer. Stimuli are related to the marketing characteristics developed by an organization in order to lure the customer in purchasing of the brand. The environmental stimuli are determined by social factors such as politics, economy and the culture in which the brand is to be used. The black box symbolizes the buyer characteristics and their choice patterns, which determine their response towards a particular brand.

Hypothesis

This research focuses on the various factors that influence consumers’ brand loyalty towards a given brand. From the various factors that influence brand loyalty, below are the hypothesis derived.

H1: There is a positive correlation between brand loyalty product and brand name

H2: There is a positive correlation between brand loyalty and product quality.

H3: There is a positive significant relationship between brand loyalty and product design

H4: There is a positive significant relationship between brand loyalty and product price.

H5: There is a positive correlation between brand loyalty and promotion.

H6: There is a significant correlation between service quality and brand loyalty.

H7: There is a positive significant relationship between store environment and brand loyalty.

Research Methodology

The main objective of this research was to establish how brand loyalty influences cosmetics buying behavior of UK female consumers. This section also highlights the various processes undertaken in obtaining and analyzing the information gathered for this research. This includes a description of the research design and methods used in collecting the data that were analyzed to arrive at a conclusion in the study.

Research philosophy

Based on the nature and the topic to be studied, this research will be conducted on positivist philosophy. It will be based on this philosophy because the research will involve testing of hypothesis developed from deductive theory, involving measurement of observable social realities.

Approach

This research will be conducted on deductive approach based on hypothesis testing from the data collected. Data will then be analyzed to either confirm or disapprove the hypothesis.

Data Collection Methods

Data collection will consist of surveys, filling in questionnaires and conducting interviews with cosmetic consumers and dealers in London, UK. Qualitative evaluation shall be employed in this research besides using subjective techniques such as interviews and observations to gather relevant and substantive data. Quantitative approach is preferred for this research due to the varying experiences of the consumers of these products. Upon collecting data using interviews and questionnaires, the data will then be carefully analyzed. This shall be carried out using both the One-way ANOVA and the Pearson’s guideline to establish how brand loyalty influences consumer behavior with respect to cosmetic consumption in UK.

Questionnaire Design

In this research, a questionnaire was developed, and pilot tested through personal interviews with seven senior-most managers at Superdrug, which is the second largest health and beauty retail shop in UK. The questionnaire used for collecting data was divided into two segments: the first section concerns the demographics of consumers and the second were about brand loyalty factors. This research involved sampling randomly 400 female cosmetic consumer of between 18 to 42 years of age. In order to obtain a reliable data, the survey was distributed in London City at five major cosmetic shops. The malls included L’Occitane, Jo Malone, Floris London, Boots and Screenface, in addition to Superdrug retail shop.  A total of 400 usable questionnaires were then returned and collected 60% response rate.

Table 1 reveals that age composition of those aged between 18-25 years were 25% of the respondents. Yet again, the table reveals that close to half of the respondents ages varied between 27-35 years. About 26% of the respondents were between the ages of 36-42. The sample survey was almost balanced at 51% for the married and 49% for the unmarried. With regard to education level, the surveyed respondent revealed that 72% of the respondent had at least a degree and 18% having completed high school. This implies that only 10% of the respondents had postgraduate degrees.

Data Analysis

This research used the One-way ANOVA to establish whether there is any significant correlation between independent variables (product quality, brand name, design, price, service quality, promotion, and store environment) and age and income the consumers interviewed. The main reason for adopting the One-way ANOVA as the most appropriate tool is that it was found to be the best for testing the hypothesis when at least two groups are measured on an interval scale. The purpose of the One-way ANOVA is to show the degree of variability of the sample values taken by considering to what extent the observation within each group differs and how much the group means differ.  Apart from the One –Way ANOVA, the researchers also found it appropriate to use the Pearson Correlation for purposes of analyzing the relationship between the two variables, which are both ratio and interval-scaled. This is based on the fact that the correlation coefficients determined using the Pearson’s guideline is used to establish the degree and direction of the correlation, which is suitable for hypothesis testing. In this regard, the research used Pearson correlation principle to test the independent variables (product quality, brand name, price, promotion, design, store environment and service quality) that influenced consumer brand loyalty and to establish if there is any correlation between the variables.

Results

Table 2 below shows the Cronbach’s Alpha (coefficient alpha) of each of the variables tested.  The findings reveal that all the variables have a high degree of reliability. Table 3, on the other hand, shows the seven autonomous variable factors of brand loyalty that were experimented during the research through questionnaires given out to the respondents. The results were also ranked using the Likert scale in the questionnaire: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree and strongly agree. The result is then gotten from the uppermost average score of brand loyalty factors based on the answers provident by the respondents. In overall, the result reveals that product quality is the most vital factor. In UK environment, most respondents choose product quality as the core aspect that influences their brand loyalty.

The One-way ANOVA scrutiny of the factors of income level and brand loyalty was conducted. This was meant to establish if there could be any significant relationship between the two variables. Here, there are four variables that are most significant according to the study, which include brand name (0.000) promotion (0.004), product quality (0.009) and service quality (0.038). In overall, the result shows that, in UK, majority of the consumers prefer brand name, promotion, and product and service quality as factors of brand loyalty. According to table five below, only two variables that are significant. These are price (0.014) and the brand name (0.050). An analysis of this data reveals that, among the age groups surveyed, female consumers aged between 36-42 prefer brand names more compare to other age groups.

Test of Hypothesis

As revealed in Table 4 below, brand name was found to have considerable positive relationship with brand loyalty. The results of this research revealed that consumers preferred brand image only when they foresee positive functions or benefits from the product in question. It is then that they will recommend the brand, react positively to the price premium and accept brand extension to other categories of products within the same brand.

The quality of the products was shown to have a positive correlation with brand loyalty. This kind of correlation is demonstrated based on Cohen’s (1988) principle, in which a correlation of (r=0.0302) is considered moderate. Therefore, based on these statistics, the finding showed that product quality has a lot of significance with regard to consumer decision-making process. The findings of this research revealed that brand loyalty and price had a positive relationship. In this case, price was found to be more important for any average consumer in the market. Nevertheless, those consumers with high brand loyalty were not very much sensitive to prices. The research showed that as long as these consumers were satisfied with a given brand, they would continue buying the product with the same brand irrespective of the price increase.  On the other hand, the findings did not show any correlation between product design and brand loyalty. Out of all the seven variables tested, many consumers did not consider product design as an important factor for UK consumers to become loyal to a given cosmetic brand.

According to the findings, promotion and brand loyalty were found to have a positive relationship. Product promotion was considered as one of the most valuable factor in determining a consumer’s brand loyalty. This includes the use of sales promotions, commercial adverts, personal and public selling. In fact, the research revealed that many female consumers spent considerable time reading product labels before purchasing the product. The research also revealed that brand loyalty and service quality had a positive relationship. Findings showed that service quality encouraged many consumers to prioritize a store. The result indicated that salesperson consumer relationship results in long-term orientation of customers towards a given store. Similarly, trust developed in the salesperson seems to relate to the overall discernment of the store’s service quality, which leads to customer’s total satisfaction with the store.

The findings also showed that the environment of the store is also positively related to brand loyalty. The store environment is seen as major factors that influence consumer brand loyalty. This research revealed that many consumers were much sensitive to attributes of the store such as a variety of selection, merchandise displays, packing space, and ease of accessibility to vehicles and the overall goodwill of the store in buying products.

Table 1. Demographic Sample Description

 Age

Frequency

Percentage (%)

18-25

27-35

36-42

100

196

104

25

49

26

Marital status

Married

Unmarried

 

204

196

 

51

49

Education:

High School

Undergraduate

Postgraduate

 

72

288

40

 

18

72

10

Table 2. Reliability Analysis of Brand Loyalty factors

Variables

Alpha

Product Quality

Brand name

Price

Promotion

Design

Service Quality

Store Environment

Brand Loyalty

0.6572

0.7028

0.6618

0.6974

0.7482

0.8200

0.7139

0.6646

Table 3. Brand Loyalty factor Ranking

Factor of Brand Loyalty Ranking

Mean/Average

Product Quality 1 3.68
Q1. The brand is durable than others   3.69
Q2. The materials used by the brand are natural   4.11
Q3. The brand has sufficient color   3.65
Q4. The brand has good functional quality   3.77
    Mean Average     3.80
Design   2  
Q1. The brand provides wide variety of designs   3.72
Q2. Designs of the brand are suitable for me   3.79
Q3. Designs of the brand have distinctive features   3.73
Q4. Designs of the brand are trendy and fashionable   3.85
    Mean Average     3.77

 

Brand Name                                                          3  
Q1. The brand is trustworthy   3.70
Q2. Brand image and name attract me to buy   3.82
Q3. Brand Name is selected irrespective of price   3.41
Q4. Brand reveals my individual personality   3.96
    Mean Average     3.72
Promotion               4  
Q1 Ads of the brand is attractive   3.64
Q2. Ads of the brand attract me towards purchasing the product   3.44
Q3. Product displays are entrancing   3.62
    Mean Average      3.56

 

Store Environment                                                   5  
Q1. The brand has good store location   3.64
Q2. There are adequate outlets for the brand   3.76
Q3. The interior show is gorgeous   3.50
Q4. Music and color inside the store are beautiful   3.36
    Mean Average     3.57

 

Price       6  
Q1. Increases of price not hinder me to purchase   2.99
Q2. The brand provides goods value for money   3.52
    Average Mean 3.56
Service Quality 7  
Q1The salesmen in the store are knowledgeable   3.21
Q2. The salesmen in the store are willing to help   3.39
Q3. Vendor of the store is and courteous and friendly   3.18
Q4Vendors in the store have neat appearance   3.33
    Mean Average     3.28

 

Table 4. Significance of Brand Loyalty factors with brand loyalty

Variables Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed)a
Product Quality

Brand name

Price

Promotion

Design

Service Quality

Store Environment

Brand Loyalty

 

0.304

0.561

0.466

0.411

0.140

0.333

0.369

0.002

0.002

0.005

0.006

0.162

0.001

0.010

Conclusions and Findings

Various studies have focused on understanding the concept of brand loyalty and the factors influencing it. Product attributes, after sale service, marketing capabilities, perceived quality or aesthetics, depth of product line as the key differencing factors influencing the behavior of purchasers. Brand commitment is also a necessary condition for true brand loyalty to occur.  Packaging, new product trial, price, store location corporate social responsibility and advertisements influence consumer behavior. While several factors influencing brand loyalty have been studied in the extant literature, this research has revealed that brand loyalty influences consumer behavior. Consumers may also compel entrepreneurs to change the brand image in terms of product or service quality. Similarly, the brand image has been proven to satisfy the consumer expectations.

The dimensions of brand loyalty theory clearly depict how consumer’s tastes and preferences influence their buying power. This is followed by an assessment of the product to decide if they will buy it or not. The assessment also referred to as evaluative tendency compels organizations to brand their products to attract customers, an aspect of competition. Product branding can be enhanced by advertising, changing the brand name and promoting it to improve recognition.  The behavioral tendency proposed by Katz is creations of a bandwagon effect among consumers to enable them continue buying the product. The initial products are branded in a way of attracting customers though subsequent ones show depreciation, a strategy used by marketers.  Branding through advertisement show some favor of the product while despising others, thus discouraging customers from using those other products whether related or not. The black box model looks into the customers willingness created by the company’s emphasis of the product. The characteristics of the buyer determine their choice of product.

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From this research, the brand name and image has a significant impact on customer choice with all factors kept constant. As part of consumer behavior, every brand has some features which consumers always associate the brand with. They consume a given brand on the basis of its features. Again, the consumers take into account the quality, and price while making buying decisions. The point of purchase is another factor that comes to a buyer’s mind. Being a highly demanded product by women, they want to buy cosmetics from a good reputed and trustworthy purchase point. Exhibition malls serves as favorite consumer purchase point.

Other factors like age, occupation and education of consumers will influence buying decisions following the way each group has been exposed about the product. Young people will have more taste of cosmetics because they want to look good while old ones are slightly less concerned with beauty. Exposure and knowledge of a product affects its demand. The raw materials making the brand also play a vital role of its choice. If a sample cosmetic is known to contain harmful chemicals, it loses its market. An organization will get to know what factors influence the purchase decision of a consumer before branding the product. Accordingly, it will direct its marketing effort so that it can get potential customers to purchase the products.

Subject Issues Learnt

Brand loyalty is the consumer’s conscious or unconscious choice that is expressed intentionally or a behavioral pattern to repurchase a brand again. This happens following the perception of the consumer that the brand provides the right image, characteristics or quality based on reasonable price. Hence, consumer behavior is habitual. Beginning from product design to creation of a mature brand, good marketing strategies, which depend on a clear understanding of the memory, motivation, learning and decision processes, influence the consumer’s choice. Launching of new products, market segmentation, timing market entry and brand management are all related to the theoretical framework employed in the research.  Branding is by far and large the most important factor influencing the product’s success or failure in the market place. It can also greatly impact the company’s perception by the buying public. Brand is not only a company’s product but also a representation of the individual company and that is where the core of brand loyalty falls.

Brand loyalty is simply more than the consumer’s commitment to repurchase a product. It incorporates the high attitude towards the product demonstrated by repeated buying.  This loyalty is a business investment because of the high prices being paid by the customers.  Depending upon the nature of the product versus basic necessities or luxuries, consumers a single or brand loyalty. This brand loyalty is affected by their brand choice as well as by their store loyalty behavior. The bondage of brand loyalty is strong especially through repeated advertising and promotional schemes. The main factors that influence brand loyalty are the quality of product, habit of use and regular availability of the product. Searching for a product means mental and physical information about products, prices and shops. Consumer information is thus a marketing tool that can be used to understand the interactions between a specific target segment and marketplace so as to meet the consumers’ needs and wants.

Brand image or the good reputation of a particular service ensures that it maintains a competitive advantage over other products and services. An organization’s brand is valuable strategic asset in achieving goals and objectives. Brand loyalty can be referred to as the consumer decision; whether conscious or unconscious concerning the use of a product or service. It may also refer to the intention to buy or use a particular product for a long duration of time. Brand loyalty is achieved due to the right features, and the quality of the brand. Quality of the product must be at the right price for the consumer to perceive the brand as being loyal to their needs. Organizations can change consumer behavior concerning a particular product or service through advertising.

The reasons why people become brand loyal are because the favored brand satisfies the consumer needs and wants than the competitors do. Again, there is a reduction of perceived risk, sticking with a favorite brand improves certainty. Brand loyalty helps maintain self image in reinforcing the customer’s self concept and confidence. It is also the path to least resistance. Marketers use strategies like in-store and o-location impulse triggers, notably point-of purchase displays.  Consumer innovativeness is the predisposition to buy new and different products rather than remain with the previous choices and consumption patterns.

Consumer behavior is influenced by social, cultural, Psychological and personal factors. Culture influences buying behavior depending on the country, geographical region, religion, nationality and racial groups. The societal classes such as wealth distribution, education and occupation impact the behavior of consumers towards a product. Social factors like family, reference groups, roles and statuses influence buyer behavior. Personal factors include lifestyle, economic situations, age, occupation, personality and self concept. Perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes are psychological factors affecting consumer behavior. Marketers should, therefore, look into these factors in branding particular products.

References

Brown, T. and Dacin, P., 1997. The Company And The Product: Corporate Associations And Consumer Product Responses. Journal Of Marketing, 61 (1), pp.68-84.

Dutton, G., 1997. Warming The Cold Heart Of Business, Management Review 86 (6), pp.17-20.

Hoyer, W. and Maclnnis, D., 2008. Consumer Behavior. New York: Cengage Learning.

Kahren, F., 2009. Brand Loyalty. Washington D. C: Whimsical Publications.

Katz, D.,1960. The Functional Approach To The Study Of Attitudes. New York; Public Opinion Quarterly.

Kim, H., 1996. Perceptual Mapping of Attributes and Preferences: An Empirical Examination of Hotel FandB Products in Korea. International Journal of Hospitality Management 15 (4), pp.373-391.

Lunn, J., 2011. Models Of Buyer Behavior: Consumer Decision Process Models. New York: Marketing Classics Press.

Phillips, C., 2010. Brand Loyalty. New York: Youwriteon.

Pride, W., and Ferrell, C., 2008. Marketing. New York: Cengage Learning.

Sandhusen, R., 2000. Marketing. London: Routledge.

Zeithmal, V.,  1988. Consumer Perceptions Of Price, Quality, And Value: A Means-End Model And Synthesis Of Evidence, Journal Of Marketing, July, pp2-22.

Did you find any useful knowledge relating to brand loyalty and customer behavior in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

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Quantity Surveying Dissertation New Rules of Measurement NRM

The Deployment and Utilisation of New Rules of Measurement within Quantity Surveying

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The construction industry has always been viewed as being the last to adopt modern technology and methods compared with other industries. The need for major change in the industry is abundantly clear as many projects in recent years have been going over budget and clients have not been satisfied with the work. This has been down to new developments in construction technology and materials. Quantity surveyors have tried to use traditional methods to price and measure these new techniques but it has been proven that the current SMM were not adequate to do so. The creation of the New Rules of Measurement aims to change all of this and provide the client with great cost accuracy on modern projects from start to finish. This dissertation aims to analyse the impact the New Rules of Measurement have had in QS firms and whether they are being used effectively by firms that have currently adopted them. The opinions and experiences of current Quantity Surveyors have been gathered by reviewing literature on NRM and by conducting interviews with quantity surveyors from the contracting and consultancy side of the profession. The general feeling in the industry is that quantity surveyors are not utilising the NRM to its full potential and there is various reasons why this is.

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Many professionals in the construction industry are against change and tend to have the opinion of “if it’s not broke, don’t fix it” in regards to the current measurement rules they use (SMM7). Companies have a lack of spare capital to invest in new methods and training. As the full set of documents has not been released people are unwilling to integrate an uncompleted document into their work. A lack of guidance and information from the RICS has also been to blame. The aim of this dissertation is to analyse how NRM is being used in the UK industry by QS professionals and to evaluate whether it is being utilised to its full potential and if it is providing effective cost certainty on construction projects.

Dissertation objectives

  • Analyse the issues that quantity surveyors have encountered in the industry with measurement and costing.
  • Compare NRM with SMM7 and how NRM can address issues arising from the use of SMM7.
  • Evaluate whether NRM has had a noticeable impact on the UK QS profession since its release.
  • Evaluate the problems that quantity surveyors may incur when trying to implement NRM into their everyday work and why some are against using it in the UK industry.

I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on new rules of measurement and how it affects the UK construction industry. There are many other titles available in the construction dissertation collection that should be of interest to construction management students and building professionals. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of construction such as project management techniques, environmental management, building and construction methods to name a few. It took a lot of time to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

MBA Leadership Essay EFQM Model

MBA Leadership – EFQM Model

A lot has been written on the EFQM Excellence Model generally and its application to the field of total quality management. This chapter is founded on the information search and review of literature that was conducted in February and March 2013. It largely investigates the EFQM model with respect to the adjustments it has undergone over the years. Steered by the three research questions in this research, the literature review then explores the history of the EFQM Excellence Model, and the different adjustments the model has undergone as well. The chapter concludes with the current position the EFQM Excellence Model.

The EFQM Excellence Model

The EFQM- European Foundation for Quality Management was established in 1988 with the aim of assisting European firms to become competitive in the global market. The first choices of this establishment were to follow the example of the American MBNQA through forming the European quality prize (Conti, 2007). The mainstays of these prizes are extremely alike because all of them are founded on the philosophy of total quality management. On the other hand, there are a number of variations between nations. In accordance with Tan (2002), in developing nations these prizes provide little significance to factors like leadership and social responsibility. In Europe, the EFQM is more relevant to human resource management as well as social impact.

Successive forms of the EFQM Excellence Model have been created. The key reason for the adjustments is to be corresponding to the state of business. An evident illustration is the development of the MBNQA from a simple system of quality assurance to a system of quality management (Tan, 2002). The present type of the EFQM model dates from 2010. On the other hand, there is still not enough capability to evaluate this new type empirically. As a result of this, this paper will focus on the application of the EFQM model from 2003 -2012.

The EFQM model of 2003 varied in significant ways from the past one from the time it integrated a few concepts, like knowledge and information management, to draw up emphasis on process management and consumer orientation and to highlight the enhancement cycle (RADAR) and, in general, to make application easier in all sorts of businesses, private or public, multinationals or medium enterprises, or even in the non-profit organisations (EFQM 2003).

The EFQM Excellence Model supposes that, for a firm to be effective, whatever its industry, structure, size and so on, it ought to have a decent system of management. In light of this, the EFQM model is an instrument that may be applied to structure the system of management of a firm, through self-evaluation.

Self-assessment comprises a consistent assessment of activities and results of a firm with the excellence model (Calvo-Mora, Leal & Roldán, 2006) and it plays a part in identifying areas of improvement and strong points that as a result could facilitate to develop enhancement plans that ought to be incorporated in the strategic plans of an organisation (Jacobs & Suckling, 2007). In general, the scientific literature finds a positive correlation between company performance and self-assessment (Ahmed et al., 2003).

The EFQM Excellence Model is a flexible framework founded on nine principles. Out of the nine, five are Enablers whereas four are Results. The Enablers focus on what a firm, the Results focus on what a firm accomplishes. Enablers lead to Results (Mavroidis, Toliopoulou & Agoritsas, 2007). The EFQM model, realising there are a lot of strategies to attain maintainable excellence in all performance elements is founded on the principle that outstanding results with regard to customers, performance, and society are attained by means of resources, partnerships and processes. With reference to figure 1, the arrows highlight the dynamic attribute of the model. They indicate learning and innovation helping to better enablers that as a result cause advanced outcomes (Mohebi, 2002). This structure proposes the presence of correlations amid enablers and results and the actuality that being effective in a remote area is not satisfactory to attain excellence (Ehrlich, 2006).

efqm dissertation MBA Leadership Essay EFQM Model

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Brief Summary of the Criteria Under the ‘Enablers’ group of the EFQM Model

Leadership- It is anticipated from the higher managers of leading firms that they would create systems of management in their firms and would struggle for their appropriate implementation and additional advancement (Collier & Bienstock, 2006). They would take the workers of the firm in assurance and would directly intermingle with their clients, suppliers and general public. These heads ought to be instrumental in making organisational transformations as and when requisite. They must come out as role models for the workers of their firm.

Policy and Strategy- Leading firms should have a long-standing strategic idea bearing in mind the anticipations of its different stakeholders (Ciavolino & Dahlgaard, 2009). These proposals must be evaluated constantly for appropriate implementation and upgraded obligatory. These plans must be founded on tracking the outer environment and monitoring the strong points of the organisation regularly.

People- It is desirable that firm manage their human resource obligations effectually by recognizing the capabilities of their employees and further advancing these to develop full advantage (Collier & Bienstock, 2006). There ought to be appropriate mediums of communication between senior managers and the staff members to identify their problems and prospects. The worker’s outstanding performance ought to be acknowledged and rewarded.

Partnerships and Resources- External allies, like suppliers, ought to be included in developing the coordination needs for more fulfillment of the buyers. The firm should assist these associates in their issues and form a synergy among them (Dahlgaard-Park, 2008). Outstanding firms ought to have well demarcated systems for dealing with their buildings, finances, materials and equipment. Old fashioned technology ought to be recognized in their operation and substituted with modern technology whenever the need arises. Appropriate application of information technology ought to be made and it must be guaranteed implied knowledge of the firm is transformed into systems of knowledge management.

Processes- Different processes must be well drawn and documented. The process ought to be analyzed for additional improvement constantly (Dahlgaard-Park, 2008). The firm must design and create its services and products on the basis of the anticipations of the clients. Long-standing relationships ought to be established with the consumers.

Brief Summary of the Criteria Under the ‘Enablers’ group of the EFQM Model

Customer’s results- How does the client view the firm? The firm is anticipated to develop processes to have knowledge of the consumer’s views of the firm (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011). People’s results- What are the views of the staff members of the firm regarding the firm? Therefore, systems must be developed to understand, monitor, forecast, and better the views of the staff members. Society’s results- What has the firm accomplished for the general public? What does the society notice regarding the firm? Therefore, systems have to be developed to understand, monitor, forecast, and better the views of the general public (Rooghani, M., & M. Homayonfar, (2005)). Key performance results- Key outcomes of performance are the results as intended by the firm. The results may be financial or non-financial. What the firm is accomplishing with regard to its intended performance is to be analysed and monitored.

According to Adebanjo (2001), the EFQM model integrates the principles of quality management mainly leaving the issues of quality management to individual companies. This implies that the aspect of quality assurance, related largely to the control of the production process, are presumed and organisations will possibly rely on other systems like six sigma, or ISO 9000 to concentrate in those features.

The Evolution of the EFQM Excellence Model

The EFQM Excellence Model is run by the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) (Iñaki, Landín & Fa, 2006). This is a nonprofitmaking body integrated in Brussels (McCarthy & Greatbanks, 2006). Its associates are firms from industry and service in addition to institutions of higher education, research organizations and other institutions from academia. Its key purpose is to pass on the concept of Excellence across Europe (Vernero et al., 2007). In this context, the EFQM offers a range of services from information material and training on self-assessment to measuring support. They are all enhancing the fundamental business of supporting and running the European Quality Award.

The basic EFQM Excellence Model was initially established co-operatively by specialists and researchers and printed in 1991 (Klefsjo¨, Bergquist and Garvare, 2008). Ever since, it has been constantly revised and upgraded. A key amendment occured in 1999. It was acknowledged that collaboration with external allies or networking in addition to invention and learning had occurred in the interim as vital encounters to organizational performance. The objective was to integrate both features in the novel model. In addition, model management, applicability, and usability must be enhanced. As an initial step, the EFQM distributed a draft for a novel model in April 1998 (EFQM 1999). Conversely, its graphic arrangement revealed the preferred learning sequence. However, two new components were incorporated: “Partnerships”, as an enabler, defined the firm’s astrategy to cope or work together with external partners; “Partners” denoted the relevant measures of performance. In addition, the subcriteria lost their previous objective of offering comprehensive requirements to every component. As an alternative, they now termed as the factors approach, positioning, valuation, and assessment. These had initially been part of the “Blue Card”, that is, the scopes for assessment. The subcriteria of the old model were shifted to the parts to tackle. The latter alterations triggered significant criticism. Firms already using the model for self-valuation objectives would have had to re-educate all their employees.

As (Jelodar, 2006)a result, they strongly supported an evolutionary strategy to model improvement as an alternative . Additional issues were witnessed in the actuality that all model matters were shifted from the degree of subcriteria to the parts to tackle. The latter are not obligatory however, potrayed as an classic guidance for firms to comprehend the model. As a result, scientists and practitioners were frightened the good judgment concerning the subjects of the model could become disoriented (Javidi, 2006). On the other hand, the novel model draft provided some substantial developments largely referring to the dimensions of assessment. These later created the RADAR-Chart. Following an intense talk with its associates across Europe, the EFQM chose to pull out the draft of the new model and presented a second suggestion which was a lot more in agreement with the earlier version (EFQM, 1999). However, it considered the aforementioned factors of invention and learning in addition to external associations which are nowadays both placed more to the front. Conversely, the original level structure with subcriteria, elements, and sections to tackle was maintained. This made it easier for firms to adjust and carry on their internal processes of self-valuation.

The Changes Incorporated in Version 2010

According to the 3 dimensional trait of the EFQM Model, this section elucidates the adjustments in each of these scopes, being: The Fundamental Concepts; The set of eight concepts was retained per se, however, all have a transformed and more vibrant title whereas the content for each was developed and is nowadays presented in a more organized manner (Tarí, 2006); The Model itself with the 9 boxes or criteria; Moreover, here the 5 enabler and 4 result benchmarks boxes were retained per se, however, have now  an improved naming, more uniformity inside, less similarity and were upgraded in content. Similarly, the weighting is now easier and more stable (Jacobs & Suckling, 2007). The RADAR factors for Results and Enablers. Here an enormous transformation was made for the ‘scope’ elements employed to evaluate the performance of the outcomes or ‘footprint’ of an firm. The set of aspects for evaluating strategies in the enabler criteria were polished with traits like effectiveness, creativity and suitability being incorporated into the popular trio of ‘approach’, ‘deployment’ and ‘assessment and review’(Shertan, 2008).

Above and beyond these key adjustments, also the weighting of the benchmarks was revised and streamlined, while retaining the ‘equal’ value amid the capability of a firm using the 5 enabler benchmarks and the performance it conveys for all stakeholders in the 4 result benchmarks. Each retains 50-percent of the total (Davies, Douglas & Douglas, 2007).

Changes in the Fundamental Concepts

The key principle of what these 8 models signify is established in this form of the Model, their function was strengthened as in former times the possible value of this aspect of the Model has frequently been undervalued (Homayonfar, 2008).  This is apparent from the process of design employed for this form of the Model – this method employed the Fundamental Concepts as the base and indite for the rest. It was now the first time that a entirely reliable and direct connection was created amid each of the eight notions and each of the 32 benchmark areas, whereas keeping these 2 outlooks on Excellence separately.

Although the amount of concepts stays at eight and the naming looks relatively identical, a comprehensive interpretation of the description for each concept demonstrates the content has been improved considerably and signifies extremely well the elements we can discover back in firms that are worthy our admiration (Delghavi, 2007).   What did not transform is that the fundamental concepts are a exceptional and influential way to ‘define’ the position of being outstanding in a broad way.  Furthermore, the 8 concepts stay numberless; they have no sequence order, weight or significance.  Which of these 8 are the most vital to follow relies on the present state and particular environment a firm exists in and what it aims to turn into in the future, its determination. What did transform however considerably is the manner these 8 concepts are nowadays  visually incorporated with the two other elements, the eight notions are now visibly placed as the electrons  circling around a core with RADAR and the 9 benchmarks (or if one prefer it more – Satellites circling around the Globe) (EFQM 2010).

Table 1 -Fundamental Concepts

2003 Version 2010 Version Key shift in content
Results orientation Achieving Balanced Results Concentration is presently on developing the key set of outcomes requisite to observe development against the  mission, vision,  and strategy, allowing leaders to formulate effectual and appropriate decisions.
Customer Focus Adding Value for Customers Concentration is presently on plainly defining and communicating the  value proposition and vigorously  involving clients in the service and product  design
Leadership & Constancyof Purpose Leading with Vision,Inspiration & Integrity The concept is at present more  dynamic, concentrating on the capability of leaders to adjust, react and  gain thededication of all stakeholders to guarantee the ongoing success of the firm.
Management by Processes and Facts Managing by Processes The concentration is at present on how the processes are intended to convey the strategy, with end to end running past the “classic”  limits of a company.
People Development andInvolvement Succeeding through People The Concentration is presently on forming a balance amid the tactical needs of the firm and the  personalprospects and objectives of the people to achieve their obligation and involvements.
Continuous Learning,Innovation and Improvement Nurturing Creativity &Innovation The concept presently identifies the need to improve and relate with networks and involving all stakeholders as possible  sources of originality and invention.
Partnership Development Building Partnerships The concept has been extended to include partnerships  beyond the supply chain and recognises that these should be based on sustainable mutual benefits to succeed.
Corporate SocialResponsibility Taking Responsibility for a Sustainable Future The concept presently cenres on  vigorously taking responsibility for the business’s behaviour and activities and handling its effect on the broader community.

The Current Version of the EFQM Excellence Model

What transformed in the way the Model functions with results?

In this section, let us evaluate what has transformed in the Model to promote a better evaluation of the performance of a company. In this segment we define first the modifications in the 4 generic benchmarks of results a firm realizes, and then how the RADAR aspects were upgraded to allow better Feedback, Analysis, Learning and Action (Andersen, Lawrie & Shulver, 2003).

What transformed in the results benchmarks?

For the 3 stakeholders being the people, customers,  and the public a firm is working with and for, the identifying and the ‘stereo’ norm of having on one hand insights and on the other hand indicators of performance stay the same (Bencsik & Nagy, 2007). On the other hand, the guidance and the the definition of which actualities and figures to concentrate on were put into precisely the same structure and were enhanced. A clear change was formed from a list of illustrations of processes to a more generic depiction of the form of or the areas of performance to apply in signifying outstanding or excellent levels of performance (Civcisa, 2007).

For the Result benchmarks 6, 7 and 8 a sharper dissimilarity between the observation (a) and pointer (b) elements of performance is now developed. This strengthens that outstanding performance can simply be established or attained of both the  efficiency and effectiveness are attained (Acur and Englyst, 2006). Each of the b) principle areas deals with the effectiveness side, with performance pointers that display how much is achieved, whereas each a) side deals with the efficiency part or performed all this action certainly ‘created a difference’.

As an illustration for consumer outcomes on the b) side a firm could indicate how fit and how much negative and positive response was managed, and how quick, whereas on the a) side the effect of this response on the definite insights by Clients is perceptible (Rusjan, 2005). Without taking part in an academic paper here on this subject, it is currently evident in the criteria that efficiency data is placed in 6a, 7a and 8a, whereas effectiveness data is under 6b, 7b and 8b (Pouyan &. Karimanpoor, 2007). As a last observation on this subject let’s remark both a) and b) can have slugish or leading pointers, this version of the Model does not employ this element to assign a result in a) or b).  On the other hand, for the  Key Results benchmark (9) a noteworthy transformation was made in the definition and identification of the outcomes the shareholders or proprietors of a firm anticipate to be attained. It now basically refers to ‘attaining what is intended for in the approach’ (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011). Certainly, also for this ‘bottom line’ principle the description and direction for appropriate facts and figures was improved like it was for principle 6, 7 and 8.

Another could be less noticeable transformation at first sight is the overview now of the notion of giving priority to key outcomes. In the description for every of the results principles a particular part is committed to establish the relative significance or weight for every of the sets of data employed to present and comprehend one of the aspects of the performance, which connects into the necessity to make contrasts and determine goals for these ‘Key Results’. The virtual weighting of principles, these transformed and gets both Consumer and Key outcomes at the same significance (150 pts each), and Individuals and The public both at 100 pts. For principle 9, and currently also principle 8 there is a 50/50-percent share between the principle parts a) and b), whereas for the people and customer principles 6 and 6 the 75/25 share stays.

Changes affecting the way we look at specific RESULTS of an organisation

Here amongst the vital transformations of the 2010 version of the  EFQM Model was created by transforming the order and improving the aspects of RADAR relevant to each of the results principles.  For the study (such as during an evaluation for instance) of the performance a attains achieves in a particular field still  two key elements are employed, however, these  transformed in order. By placing the ‘relevance and usability’ of the outcomes first, and the popular performance elements of ‘targets, ‘trends’, ‘causes’ and ‘comparisons’ add, a balance between the examination of set of information itself and what may be perceived as patterns in this information has been recognized clearly and resolutely now (Gomez-Gomez, Martınez-Costa & Martınez-Lorente, 2011).

Foremost the analysis in agreement with the approach of the ‘scope & relevance’, ‘integrity’ and ‘segmentation’ of the information employed to comprehend and show the outcomes for a specific principle (6, 7, 8 or 9) is performed. Just when a vivid picture of what we employed to call ‘scope’ is decided upon, the level of performance may be evaluated.  Together then these 2 aspects help in measuring how strong the performance is or where noteworthy prospective to advance can be realized.The adjustments to the results segment of the RADAR imply that those measuring need to form a judgement, based on the data they are given, with regard to: The percentage of the outcomes being applicable, segmented and integer  for ‘Relevance and Usability’; and if the performance is  probable to be maintained into the future, founded on  evaluating the tendencies and targets, contrasts with other firms, the understanding of the “reason & effect” connections, modifications in the operating setting, etc.

What transformed in the way the Model functions with enablers?

In general, the structuring into 5 enabler principles was kept as an easy way to divide into generally approved groups of tactics a firm can transform when targeting to advance its size and future performance.  Whereas on the well-known 9 boxed picture all main words were kept (with the exclusion of ‘Policy’), the invitation from ‘Processes’ into  ‘Procedures, Services’ and Commofity highlights the worldwide personality of the EFOM Model (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011).  It is relevant for any form of industry, size or development.  In addition, it stops some explanations of the principles that ‘forget’ the center of any firm  that lies into the plan and provision of their collection of services, or products , the contribution for Customers employed to fulfil their task.

Another could be less apparent transformation at first sight is the extension of the Response arrow underneath the 9 boxes with  ‘Creativity’. In addition, the ‘Learning’ and ‘Innovation’ as the preferred outcome of comprehending how enablers incorporate with outcomes and vice versa, this highlights inventiveness as an factor element influencing accomplishment, it illustrates the dynamic attribute of the EFQM Model.

What changed in the enabler criteria?

In agreement, 24 benchmark araes are still employed to structure an organized and comprehensive outlook on the dimensions and value of all the methodologies a fim has. There are 24 areas a firm may transform in the light of a continued and improved future performance.  Such as in the 2003 version, every benchmark has 5 criterion areas, apart from criterion 2 on Strategy which has 4 areas. Moreover the alterations shortened below per benchmark part, numerous attention was offered in this revision to bring the amount of management points to a standard amid 5 and 6. This way every point defines now more evidently  a particular subject that may produce valuable topics for discussion. Furthermore, a rationality analysis on these management points to define just realistic and modern practices of management was performed, giving rise to a general decrease (from >160 to 132) and a more concentrated content (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011). Even though the old expression ‘may include’ is currently methodically substituted by ‘Actually, Excellent firms:’, these management points must NOT be regarded as a worksheet or a list of compulsory practices or tactics, they act as a generic list of practices from actual life circumstances in a way to describe a particular criterion-part.  Perhaps the most influential incorporation was attained by re-cycling a number of or all of the shot points from the Fundamental Concepts into every benchmark field (Gomez-Gomez, Martınez-Costa & Martınez-Lorente, 2011).

Changes affecting the way we look at a specific enabler of an organisation

Even though the modifications here are less noticeable at first sight matched to the ones for the results aspects of RADAR, they as well demand cautious attention when adjusting to the 2010 version. Although for instance the term ‘review’ is substituted by the name ‘refine’, as well what is being ‘Assessed & Refined’ is currently defined more evidently in the novel picture. In general, one may view each of the RADAR letters have this form of development; this is mirrored as well in the novel picture for RADAR that well demonstrates now the ‘whole circle’ of the 4 areas of the RADAR rationality (Go´mez-Go´mez, Martı´nez-Costa & Martı´nez-Lorente, 2011). The 3 aspects and how these are made up of the 7 qualities remains mainly similar as a structure and the technique to come to an agreement of either a recording level or to enable an intensive exchange of insights for one of the 24 enabler benchmarks.  On the other hand, a number of trivial changes in wording may have a substantial adjustment in the examination of an enabler, such as the ‘timeliness’ (or speed) of positioning.In conclusion, the medium for scoring objective is now more constantly employing the standard of ‘evidence’ to arrive at an agreement for each of the aspects and/or the subsection of qualities.  As a good description in the appendix is not yet obtainable, this generates a need for more management for the applied meaning of ‘evidence’, this for instance during a actual external evaluation.

References

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Did you find any useful knowledge relating to the EFQM model in this post? What are the key facts that grabbed your attention? Let us know in the comments. Thank you.

HRM Essay HR Performance Issues and Motivation

HR Performance Issues and Motivation

“Do not discipline employees who are unable to perform a task. Discipline those who are able to perform a task, but are unwilling or unmotivated to succeed” – SANS Leadership and Management Competencies course book (Bong, 2014)

Understanding the motivations of employees in order to identify and correct performance issues is fundamental to effective Human Resource management.

Because of this, there is a wealth of research related to understanding the underlying causes and effects of good and bad employee performance. The goal is to figure out where the problem originates and to develop ways to correct those problems.

Motivation theories are abundant but all originate from the experts considered to be fathers of motivation theory; Maslow and Herzberg. Early motivation theorists like Abraham Maslow and Frederick Hertzberg, laid the foundation upon which modern motivation theory is built. Their work has guided research in this area of study since the late 1950’s and early 60’s (Hendriks, 1999).

Yet as the workplace has evolved and diversified over the last several decades, so have the perspectives on motivation theory. The foundation has remained the same, but the perspectives are changing and elaborating what was original hypothesized by Maslow and Herzberg.

Take for instance Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. Maslow theorized that human motivation is driven by five needs: the need for shelter or safety, food and water, love and respect, recognition and fulfillment. These needs are organized in a hierarchy based on basic needs and “higher-order” needs; food and shelter are basic needs, recognition, love, fulfillment and respect are higher-order needs (Hendriks, 1999).

HRM Dissertation Topics HRM Essay HR Performance Issues and Motivation

HRM Dissertation Topics

Hertzberg, on the other hand, proposes just two categories in his motivational theory. Herzberg concludes that people are motivated by either extrinsic or intrinsic motives (Gagne & Deci, 2005). Mainly, this theory says that either a person is motivated because they like what they are doing, or, they are motivated based on the expectation that they will be rewarded in some way for the work they are doing.

Both theories suggest that employee satisfaction is important to motivation and that in order to keep employees motivated, their needs must continue to be satisfied. Maslow’s theory falls short of prescriptive answers to questions of employee motivation, whereas Hertzberg suggests that employers can maintain employee satisfaction by considering the intrinsic and extrinsic motives of their employees when adopting rewards incentives (Davoren, 2013).

While Maslow and Herzberg’s theories in their broader applications have become less applicable as the workforce and workplace has changed, the fundamental basis of these theories is still sound and relevant to current motivational theory.

Among some of the more recent expansions on motivation theory include the Commitment and Necessary Effort (CANE) motivation Model, Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET). Motivation theory has been applied to understanding motivation in many different areas, including in sports, academic achievement and business. These theories applied in business can help solve HR performance issues and improve employee motivation.

The CANE motivation model tries to incorporate the many different aspects of motivation theory. It takes the best approaches of modern research, and combines them into one all-encompassing theory that can be used to understand the motivations of professionals with knowledge based jobs (Clark, 1998). These types of jobs, white collar jobs that require some expertise and professional knowledge, usually involve incentives for attracting highly educated professionals. Understanding the interaction of rewards systems and motivators that guide those professionals is very important for HR recruitment.

Clark argues that some strategies in the area of organizational development overestimate the effect that employee incentives like contests and performance recognition have on employee motivation (Clark, 1998). These strategies are widely used as a means to increase worker productivity. However, some research studies have suggested that studies that show that these strategies work to improve motivation are “fatally flawed” and that these strategies may not have as much power to influence employee behavior as previously thought (Clark, 1998).

The CANE Model says that motivation is two-pronged and intertwined. First, motivation is based on commitment to a goal. The second is the amount of effort that goes into achieving that goal (Clark, 1998). If an employee is motivated by a commitment to achieving their goal, he or she will remain focused on that goal even if they are tempted to focus on other less important goals. Once that level of commitment is achieved, the effort needed to achieve the goal, or the “Necessary Effort”, will sustain the motivation to complete the task. If the task is perceived as important, then the necessary effort to complete the task is tied to its importance.

Though Maslow and Herzberg’s theories are becoming outdated, the CANE Model falls short of unifying motivation theory into one model because of its limitations in broad application. It is too broad to explain the nuance effects that culture and diversity have on individual definitions of commitment, effectiveness and control (Clark, 1998). Not to mention that broad solutions to problems of motivation in the workplace can only be identified by this model; applying those solutions to specific job performances is more difficult and requires more specialized solutions.

Self-Determination Theory has evolved not only through theoretical analysis but has also held up in empirical studies. SDT relies heavily on needs based theory, but the needs are more psychological in nature. Satisfying these psychological needs, according to Self-Determination Theory, motivates behavior and also elucidates the processes that direct action (Gagne’ & Deci, 2005).

In this theory, by determining underlying psychological needs, employers can appeal to the intrinsic motivations of employees to correct performance issues and to increase motivation. Intrinsic motivation is driven by internal satisfaction. This involves the motivation that comes from being engaged in an activity that brings personal satisfaction. It is unrelated to any material reward. An employee is motivated by a psychological need to be challenged or to feel a sense of accomplishment (Ryan & Deci, 2000).

Since all behaviors are at their core driven psychologically, research in the area of Self-Determination Theory has tried to discern which of these psychological needs are being fulfilled by intrinsic motivation.   What has been concluded is that intrinsic motivation can be encouraged and facilitated by environment since intrinsic motivation is not caused but rather “catalyzed” into action when the conditions are right (Ryan & Deci, 2000).”

Lastly, Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) which is one aspect of Self-Determination Theory finds that intrinsic motivation can be produced by offering encouragement and feedback that satisfies a sense of accomplishment and competence in employees (Ryan & Deci, 2000). This can be done using rewards for achievement; a bonus for timely turnaround or for reaching a sales goal. But employees can also be intrinsically motivated by words of encouragement that satisfy the same psychological need for feeling competent; a pat on the back or a ‘good job’ goes a long way.

Work performance is directly affected by job satisfaction and motivation. The work performance is the outcome. When working from the intrinsic motivation model, appealing to the internal psychological needs of employees can increase job satisfaction, which in turn sparks motivation and finally produces an improved work performance. Understanding the means to increase job satisfaction is the crux of resolving performance issues and positively motivating employees.

Solutions to performance issues should be evaluated at all levels. Just because an employee is not performing satisfactorily doesn’t mean that the problem lies with the employee. Sometimes, the problem is in management style or a lack of resources to do the job right. These things can exacerbate poor performances when the employee feels that they are not being given the proper tools to complete their job or receiving the necessary feedback to do the job correctly (Lister, 2012). By simply rewarding exceptional behavior or providing constructive feedback for poor performance, an employer can improve job satisfaction and thereby resolve performance issues.

Therefore, assessing the needs of the group can allow employers to predict how those assessments will effect “job satisfaction and work outcome” (Gagne & Deci, 2005). Also, evaluating the types of needs that are being satisfied can affect job satisfaction and outcome. Herzberg presents two different factors in employee motivation. There are hygiene factors, the more superficial needs, and the motivation factors, which include more intrinsic motives.

Among hygiene factors that Herzberg identified are things like salary and work conditions. Motivation factors on the other hand, include things like personal achievement, opportunities for promotion, and a sense of responsibility (Hendriks, 1999). These factors have a direct and indirect effect on job satisfaction and performance. Hygiene factors according to Herzberg’s theory mostly affect motivation in a negative way; by the very absence of things like good working conditions and status, job satisfaction is decreased (Hendriks, 1999).

Consider a garbage man whose job performance has gone down. His work has slowed and he seems clearly dissatisfied with his job. Upon evaluation, HR has discovered that the employee is dissatisfied with his salary. He has been on the job for several years without promotion and without pay increases. According to both Maslow and Herzberg’s theories of motivation, his job dissatisfaction is rooted in one of his intrinsic and basic needs not being met; salary, food and shelter.

But further analysis supports Herzberg’s theory that there is a second prong to this employee’s dissatisfaction. He has not received a promotion, which is more than mere dissatisfaction with his salary; it implies that he is dissatisfied because he is not receiving the recognition that he feels that he deserves for the time and commitment he has given to his employer. By not relating to the psychological need for recognition, which has its own intrinsic reward for the employee, the employer is partly to blame for the performance issue and lack of motivation.

To resolve the problem, the employer must first identify the causes of the problem and then seek to improve job satisfaction through proper motivation. In this scenario, showing that management cares about his input and recognizes his many years of contribution by giving him a raise or a new promotion or job title, can help to resolve those performance issues by appealing to the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of the employee.

Work Cited

Bong, K. (2014 ) Management Laboratory. Retrieved from Sans Technology Institute:

Clark, R. E. (1998). Motivating Performance: Part 1 – Diagnosing and Solving Motivation Problems. Performance Improvement. Los Angeles: University of Southern California.

Davoren, J. (2013) What Types of Rewards Would Motivate Workers in an Organization?

Gagne’, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 331-362.

Hendriks, P. (1999). Why Share Knowledge? The Influence of ICT on the Motivation for Knowledge Sharing. Knowledge and Process Management , 91-100.

Lister, J. (2012). Examples of a Motivational Issue in an Organization.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). An Achievement Goal Theory Perspective on Issues in Motivation Terminology, Theory, and Research. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 92-104.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 54-67.

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