Dissertation Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices

Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices at RMC Global

In this era of global competition, the importance of Human Resource Management practices in the context of organizational performance has been realized to a great extent. In last few decades, great research has been conducted in the field of HRM and its relation to organizational performance. The researchers have found a strong positive relationship between human resource practices and enhanced organizational performance. Primary purpose of this research was to investigate the relation between human resource activities and organizational performance at RMC Global Company. Data was collected through mail questionnaire sent to employees of HR department of RMC Global Company, UK. 51 filled responses or questionnaires were received and utilized in the analysis of this study. Overall research methodology of the study was based on onion model presented by Sounders. According to analysis, employees believed that they are provided an opportunity to participate in decision making, of business which affected their performance. Findings of the study show a positive relationship between human resource practices and organizational performance. It depicts that RMC employees participate in innovative technologies to a great extent in order to contribute positively in the organizational performance. Further, the findings can draw a roadmap for the managers of UK insurance companies in order to appreciate the efforts of human resources to get sustaining competitive advantage in the industry. In conclusion, HR practices have positive relation with the organizational performance. However, it is recommended that RMC Global Company should provide employees with more conducive and learning environment. Entire HRM activities should be executed in a best way in order to enhance the organizational performance. Aims and objectives of the study have indispensable importance and define various implications of this study, its beneficiaries, as well as the study outcomes. The main aim of the study is to examine how HR activities impact on performance of RMC Global Company.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Identification and investigation of various aspects of human resource management
  • Investigation of the impact of HR activities on individuals’ performance at RMC Global Company
  • Examination of the impact of HR activities on RMC Global Company’s performance
  • Suggesting of an effective implementation plan of HR practices to future performance of RMC Global Company and other insurance companies

All of these objectives are specific, measureable, reliable, attainable, and actionable that will contribute to the enhancement of RMC Global Company’s performance. These will also help the RMC Global Company to gain enduring growth in insurance sector.

Human Resources Dissertation Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices


As a result of growing forces which appeared in response of rapid change in the business environment, the direction of the policy is steered towards an assortment of reactions between industrial organizations, the rate of technological invention, variation in consumer demand as well as Globalization of markets. Manufacturers are the features that amplified the vitality of the competitive environment within which organizations are required to retort. Today a competitive and efficient human resource is important for the power of organizations that is facing the trials of business. Nowadays, the implication of containing a competitive human resource is equal to the achievement of organizations. An effective and competent human resource would produce productive and quality individuals that will ultimately decrease the difficulties associated with human resource just like absenteeism, turnover and job dissatisfaction of employees. What is meant by human resource management? Actually Human resource management is a philosophy, a policy, practice and a system which can stimulate individuals who are working in an organization. Activities of HRM are composed of staffing, development, performance appraisal, training and compensation management, health and safety as well as industrial relations.

HRM practices are the activities which can inspire the workers also enhance employees’ levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In the early 1980s the Concept of HRM became prevalent, there was growing educational concern in the area of research and concept. Initial models of HRM were mostly conceptual lacking considerable experimental indication for their rationality. Decade of 1990s perceived a considerable change in the concept as experiential research began which initiated the process to probe link between performance and HRM practices. In modern times the research provides empirical confirmation of the relationship among performance and practices of HRM. Many researchers also contain a cumulative concern in the notion of HRM practices as well as the strongest connection among organizational performance and HRM practices. Basically, the concept of HRM surfaced in 80s from out-dated personnel management practices. Typically personnel management was mostly considered a connecting the recital of simple functions of staffing, frequently steered, devoid of concern to other organisational actions as well as devoid of arrangement of administrative objectives. HRM is like a business that is progressed as an allowance of the typical role of personnel in the form of a very operative organisational action. A human resource audit is a single system that is used to assess and evaluates all the activities in the arena of human resource management. Its sub-grouping is not perfect and methods of human resource assessment are not acknowledged evenly in the textbooks of modern times. Though, the literature of the combination of human resource auditing along with some other H.R assessment methods contain indication for the determinations of comparison and discussion.

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on human resource management practices at RMC Global. There are many other titles available in the HRM dissertation collection that should be of interest to human resource management students and CIPD professional. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of HRM such as employee engagement, HRM Theory, absenteeism, training and development to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Advertising Dissertations

Advertising Dissertations

I have been asked by marketing students who have purchased marketing dissertations from our website to write a blog post relating to advertising within the marketing arena. With this in mind, I have taken a couple of hours to construct this post on advertising.

Definitions of Advertising

Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. It is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media.

Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging ‘environmentally friendly’ behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game and television viewing promotion, and a “lazy man” routine through a loss of exercise.

Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

Advertising serves three main purposes:

  1. To get or win new customers.
  2. To increase use of products or services among existing customers.
  3. To help potential customers make a choice among competing brands.

Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products useful to them. Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using various media types, with different techniques and methods most suited. For every organization and every product or service, advertising tends to fulfill a specific goal or objective. Nevertheless on the general front, advertising is a mechanism that fulfills all, some or one of the three major functions:

Firstly advertising has an informing nature – about organizations, about products and services, about the environment, the society, the trends in society and many more aspects of life. This deals with the cognitive context of the target audience in which they grasp the information and channelize it according to their own comprehension and predilection.

Secondly advertising provides the incentives to viewers for them to engage in action. This deals with the emotional dimension of the target audience, which concentrates on touching and persuading the consumers rather than informing and apprising them.

The third function of advertising is to provide constant reminders and reinforcements to generate the desired behavior the advertiser wants from them. This is a particularly effective function in the long run as reminders and reinforcements register in the consumers’ minds, becoming the base on which they shape their future decisions. There are a few reasons for advertising some of which are like this:

  • Increasing the sales of the product / service • Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image
  • Communicating a change in the current product
  • Introduction of a new service
  • Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company
Advertising Dissertations Advertising Dissertations


Types of Advertising

There are types of advertising objectives which are:

  • Informative advertising where the objective is to build primary demand in the introduction or pioneering stage of a product
  • Persuasive advertising where the objective is to build selective or comparative demand in the competitive or growth stage of a product.
  • Reminder advertising with mature products and reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice.

And there are the following major advertising media types:

  • Print advertising – newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, yellow pages, newsletters etc.
  • Outdoor advertising – billboards, kiosks, trade-shows, events etc.
  • Broadcast advertising – TV, Radio, mobile (back-lit) vans or autos etc.
  • Online advertising – Telephone, SMS/MMS, emails, pop ups, banner ads, video ads etc.

Objectives of Advertising

Four main Objectives of advertising are:

  1. Trial
  2. Continuity
  3. Brand switch
  4. Switching back

Let’s take a look on these various types of objectives.

Trial: the companies which are in their introduction stage generally work for this objective. The trial objective is the one which involves convincing the customers to buy the new product introduced in the market. Here, the advertisers use flashy and attractive ads to make customers take a look on the products and purchase for trials.

Continuity: this objective is concerned about keeping the existing customers to stick on to the product. The advertisers here generally keep on bringing something new in the product and the advertisement so that the existing customers keep buying their products.

Brand switch: this objective is basically for those companies who want to attract the customers of the competitors. Here, the advertisers try to convince the customers to switch from the existing brand they are using to their product.

Switching back: this objective is for the companies who want their previous customers back, who have switched to their competitors. The advertisers use different ways to attract the customers back like discount sale, new advertise, some reworking done on packaging, etc.

Advertising Management

Advertising simply put is telling and selling the product. Advertising Management though is a complex process of employing various media to sell a product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses the media campaigns that help sell the product.

Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods and services.

As mentioned above, advertising management begins from the market research phase. At this point, the data produced by marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific product.

Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the launch of the product.

The Strengths of Advertising as a Marketing Technique?

Advertising, being an utterly vital segment of the promotional dimension of marketing, has its share of strengths in its role as a marketing technique. There are other elements in the promotional mix as well such as sales promotion, publicity and direct marketing, nevertheless advertising has an exclusive strength to reach a mass audience.

The reach factor is very important that accentuates the significance of advertising in the process of marketing as well as branding. Furthermore advertising is an essential tool to introduce products for the first time in the market. Not only that but it also illustrates any modifications and alterations in the product or service that it is advertising. Moreover it proves to be a very effective source of reminding and reinforcing the impact of its communication of the product, not letting the consumers forget about it. Last but not the least it persuades the target audience and shapes their buying decisions.

Advertising gives companies and businesses the opportunity to build up a brand and an identity. The distinct adverts in both TV and print form are instantly recognizable as the company’s own and give it an identity as a clean, modern and reputable brand. Advertisements need to relate to current trends and sell both a product individually as well as the company as a whole. If an advertisement succeeds at both it can help draw an audience to the product or service and build a relationship between the consumer and company. Establishing this connection should lead to a boost in sales for the business.

AIDA Model: Measurement of Effectiveness of Advertisement

This theory is based on the premise that during a sales presentation, the prospect consciously goes through four different stages: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. The components of this theory believe that the salesperson should design his presentation in such a manner which takes care of all these stages of the process of selling. The details of these components are as follows:

A: Attention

The salesperson should attract the prospect to his presentation before he actually goes into the details of the same. This is to ensure that the prospect becomes receptive to the presentation.
Here the need for securing attention is must. It’s a fact that usually the prospect may be busy in his routine jobs or daily assignments. Thus, before meeting the salesperson, the prospect’s mind may be engaged in something other than the concerned product, about which the salesperson in going to talk. Unless the salesperson involves the prospect’s mind in the presentation, his total effort may go unnoticed or unregistered. Drawing the prospect’s attention, therefore, is as good as to detach him from other assignments and involving him in the presentation, both physically and mentally, so as to gain maximum from the sales meeting.

I: Interest

Once the salesperson has successfully gained the prospect’s attention, he should maintain the interest of the prospect throughout the presentation. In other words, the salesperson should ensure that the prospect remains glued to his presentation throughout its length and that he does not wander away from the same. The salesperson should be aware of the interest, likes, dislikes, attitude and motivation of the prospect and should proceed with the presentation, keeping in view all the factors.
D: Desire

To create a strong desire in the prospect’s mind to purchase his product is the next important step. The salesperson should consciously try to bring the prospect into this stage of readiness on the point of buying his product. He should concentrate on projecting the benefits of his product to the prospect. He should go even to the extent of presenting benefits according to the motivation of the prospect. The salesperson should also be prepared to anticipate the resistance to his sales presentation in terms of objections or questions from the prospect. Not only that, he should be prepared with several answers and explanations to the anticipated objections.

A: Action

Once the salesperson has been successful in taking his prospect through the three stages, he should induce them into actually buying the product. Sometimes even after going through the three stages of Attention, Interest and Desire; the prospect may still have some doubt or some disinterest which will stop him from taking the final decision of actually buying the product. Hence, it becomes an important task for the salesperson to help his prospect in taking the final decision. At this stage; the salesperson tries to push the prospect into a situation to take a decision; and the deal is closed skillfully and successfully. This is what is expected of a salesperson in this stage.

Importance of Advertising

Advertising plays a very important role in today’s age of competition. Advertising is one thing which has become a necessity for everybody in today’s day to day life, be it the producer, the traders, or the customer. Many companies rely on advertising these days to boost sales of their products or services, to build a connection with their audience and to create competition with their rival firms.

Advertising is important for the customers

Advertising plays a very important role in customers’ life. Customers are the people who buy the product only after they are made aware of the products available in the market. If the product is not advertised, no customer will come to know what products are available and will not buy the product even if the product was for their benefit. One more thing is that advertising helps people find the best products for themselves, their kids, and their family. When they come to know about the range of products, they are able to compare the products and buy so that they get what they desire after spending their valuable money. Thus, advertising is important for the customers. Current consumers can also be kept up to date with the latest products and services available to them.

Advertising is important for the seller and companies producing the products

Advertising plays very important role for the producers and the sellers of the products, because:

  • Advertising helps increasing sales
  • Advertising helps producers or the companies to know their competitors and plan accordingly to meet up the level of competition.
  • If any company wants to introduce or launch a new product in the market, advertising will make a ground for the product. Advertising helps making people aware of the new product so that the consumers come and try the product.
  • Advertising helps creating goodwill for the company and gains customer loyalty after reaching a mature age.
  • The demand for the product keeps on coming with the help of advertising and demand and supply become a never ending process.

Advertising is important for the society

Advertising helps educating people. There are some social issues also which advertising deals with like immoral labor, liquor consumption, smoking, family planning education, etc. thus, advertising plays a very important role in society.

You will find many dissertations relating to advertising in the marketing dissertation section of the website. Below is a list of some advertising dissertations we have available:

Dissertation – Influence of Advertising on Consumer Behaviour

Dissertation – Advertising and Semiotics as Meaningful Signs

Dissertation – Effects of Advertising and Its Impact on the Consumption of Alcohol by Young People

Dissertation – How Does Zara Sustain Competitive Advantage In Europe Without Advertising?

Dissertation – Creative Advertising versus Direct Marketing

Dissertation – How Does Celebrity Advertising Impact Fashion Consumers?

Dissertation – Effects of E-Marketing and Online Animated Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Dissertation – Can Mass Media Advertising Increase Consumer Perception To Better Brand Credibility? An Investigation into Coca Cola’s UK Advertising Strategies

Dissertation – Brand Advertising and Celebrity Endorsement: The Impact on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Dissertation – Importance of Advertising in the Retail Industry

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MBA Project Strategic Management and Leadership HSBC

MBA Project Strategic Management and Leadership at HSBC


Strategic management is the process managers of an organization imagine its future and make the mandatory operations and procedures to accomplish that future (Wells, n.d). Strategic leadership means to consider the all organization rather single unit, managerial frame of reference, multidimensional work that completed working with other people (Hitt, Irland and Hoskisson, 2004). In an organization strategic management and strategic leadership play pivotal role to make wide range of strategies and to accomplish goals through these strategies through leadership. I am going for overview of HSBC’s strategic leadership and management. It the world’s best local bank which situated in London. It is one the big financial and banking services organization. Its international network includes about 7500 offices in 87 territories and countries in the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Middle East (hsbc.com, 2011).

HSBC’s Mission Statement:

Our mission is to provide effective and efficient operations, outstanding customer service, maintain strong liquidity and capital position by strict expense discipline and prudent lending policy.

The HSBC group‘s aim is to accomplish the highest individual standards of commitment and integrity to faire and truth lending, esteemed competence, compliance and quality with entire regulations and laws whatever bank conduct its operations.

1. Understanding the relationships and construction of a personal development plan

1.1. Evaluate the impact and relationship of a personal development plan on own development and achievement of organization objectives

Development of personal plan not only beneficial to individuals but also help them to achieve organizational objectives. It comprises on activities that enhance identity and awareness, develop potential and talents, facilitates employability and build human capital, contribute to the realization of aspirations and dream and improve quality of life. If we see the personal development plan in the context of organization or HSBC, it refers to the programs, methods, techniques, assessment systems and tools that help human development in organization at individual level. There is direct relation between personal development on own development and organizational goal’s accomplishment. Personal development of employees enables them to effectively and efficiently achieve the organizational objectives. It is mandatory to develop the personal skills and needs of employees in order to attain the organizational objectives. Further, PDP facilitate personal development, growth, and self-understanding to empower practices of constructive life both professionally and personally. PDP can support to enhance the following areas of life which ultimately enable the individuals to achieve the organizational goals. Development areas may include:

  • It improve the behavior and attitude of employees through interacting with others
  • It gives the direction to employees preparing their short, medium and long term longs in the best interest of the organizational
  • It supports individuals to take healthy habits about their body which allows them to perform healthy.
  • Enhances the interpersonal relations which provide benefits to make good relations with others professionally, personally and commercially to accomplish the organizational goals.
  • It support to individual’s profession through building a career with positive personal attributes and elements
  • Motivation is the most vital benefit of PDP, it give inspiration and create a drive in individuals toward the accomplishment of organizational goals.
  • It provides controlling to individuals through controlling their thoughts by minimizing negative patterns of thoughts. Positive thinking in the organization helps to entire organization to get success.
  • It provides a reflection to individuals over different ideas and thoughts together to establish sense for organizational objectives.
  • It provides action planning, executing their plans and evaluating sense about their plans.
HSBC Management Dissertation MBA Project Strategic Management and Leadership HSBC

HSBC Management Dissertation

1.2. Construct a personal development plan (PDP) to address short, medium and long term needs

PDP is a process that supports individuals to think regarding their own performance, learning, and achievements and to plan for their educational, personal and career development.  To construct a PDP HSBC required spending more time. Best constructed plan will help the bank to develop its individuals for the accomplishment of goals. This plan will be based on short, medium and long term needs of individuals which help them to identify, implement and evaluate these needs toward the achievement of HSBC’s goals. It is vital to involve a manager in the development of personal development plan. Manager’s feedback and approval make sure that objectives and goals of organization are met in the plan (frankbradley, 2011) . In an organization there are some areas that need development which include leadership, communication, tendency to recognize goals, analyzing, delegating, reporting, motivating, decision making, communicating and supporting other (Business Link, 2005). The proposed personal development plan for HSBC is depicted in next page.

Personal Development   Plan for HSBC

Skills /Needs

How can   you develop those skills?

How will you Know and when will   you develop these skills?

What are my present Job Challenges   that I need to meet?    
What is my two years plan?    
What is my 5 or 10 years Plans?    
How these plans match in with   required practice?    
What changes will I require to   accomplish these plans?    
What I clear regarding my personal   ambitions and goals?    
What extra understand and   knowledge will I need?    
What are vital task that I will   perform?    
How clearly I will define my goals?    
Which thing motivates you to   accomplish organizational goals?    
What different should I do?    

1.3. Analyze how the development plan affects, or could affect, achievement of organizational objectives

As I said personal development plan help the individuals to achieve organizational goals, it give the direction to employees, recognize their abilities and stimuli them toward the accomplishment of organizational goals. Further, it realizes that how employees can contribute in small, medium and long term objectives of the organization. PDP provides a flexible and powerful way to link, professionals, employees and personal development of HSBC’s business. (knowledge.hsbc.co.uk, 2011). The HSBC will also get benefit in case of successful working of PDP. It can engage with employee’s commitment, knowledge and abilities to enhance the potential of company’s business. It is necessary for HSBC to secure the trust of employees to get the benefit from PDP. It can say that objectives do not directly correlate with specific work tasks. For example, goal of PDF might be to enhance language skills, a generally difficult task for organizations. Company can get the benefit with more accomplished employees whose self-esteem and motivation can lead to achieve organizational objectives. This motivation and self-esteem enable the employees to work within targets for enduring success of HSBC.

Further, personal development plan should be specific, attainable, measureable, time bound and relevant to better accomplish the objectives of HSBC. PDP will enable the bank to set time limits, targets and record accomplishments so that bank can measure lake of progress or excellent progress. As the plan of bank will work better in an efficient way, HSBC make necessary actions or adjustments to get back on right track. It also helps the employees to analyze their job challenges and recommend ways of solution to HSBC.  This plan will also better match with required practices of bank’s employees. Employees can better define their individual goals for the achievement of organizational goals. It provides the different or unique ways of solution to employees. In addition, it improve self-knowledge and self-awareness, building identify, developing talents or strengths, enhancing wealth, spiritual improvements, improving or identifying potential, developing social abilities, meeting aspirations, improving quality of life or life style, this entire process linked with supervision or appraisal of employees (palgrave.com, 2011).

Leadership development program has a drawback when individual could start to gossip secret information and could take benefit of having power. Individuals feels strong, this trend lead to leaking of secret data. Imposing authority on various employees can lead to resistance among various employees. Learning leadership skills through personal development plan may leave an employee to overlook the management skills. Therefore, strategic planning, coordinating, organizing may be overlooked as leading others now becomes an importance. Leading or influencing others is vital when individual’s needs are able to manage other skills to accomplish the work.

2. Understanding data and information and apply knowledge to the skills of quantitative analysis

2.1. Determine the data and information available to the strategic manager for decision making

Today, for organization like HSBC wide range of data is available for strategic manager to make prudent decisions. Strategic manager can better cope with various potential problems or issues with enhanced decision making processes, methods and techniques. HSBC has a wide range of strategic information and data for its strategic managers. For example, company has a good market survey, SWOT analysis, PEST analysis, and porter’s five forces analysis, information about various stakeholders, corporate social responsibility, competition position and sustainability requirements. All these analysis and strategic information enable the strategic manager of HSBC to make the long term decision or solve the complex problems. Further, manage knows entire decision making process and its errors with respect to entire financial decisions. According to 2011, HSBC improved its financial position as compared to 2010 which a positive point for the company.

In addition, manager knows about various reasons of failure in corporate market. All the data related to strategy formulation, implementation and evaluation are also available for manager to make decisions accordingly. Managers of HSBC are making more rational and logical decisions to compete in UK market, a competitive financial sector.

2.2. Identify core financial data, analyze the data and draw conclusions

HSBC provides wide category of financial services to about 100 million customers via four global business and customer groups: commercial banking, personal financial services (consumer finance also), private banking and global market and banking (HSBC Interim Report , 2010). According to HSBC Interim Report 2011 the core financial data of company is as under (Interim Report, 2011):

  • Profit before tax comprises on 11.5 billion US dollars which increased 3 percent on first half of 2010 and 45% on second half of 2010
  • 8.9 billion US dollars attributable profit to shareholders ( ordinary) which increased by 35 percent on 1st half of 2010 and 46 percent 2nd half of 2010
  • 12.3% return on average equity of ordinary shareholders which is increased by 10.4% from 1st half of 2010 and 8.9% in 2nd half of 2010
  • 0.51 US dollar earning per share which is 34% higher than 1st half of 2010 and 46% of 2nd half of 2010
  • Bank has 8.9 US dollars net assets per share which is increased by 17 percent in 1st half of 2010 and 8 percent in 2nd half of 2010
  • With respect to 2011, bank declared a totaling 0.18 US dollars per ordinary share which is increased by 12.5 as compared to 2010
  • Other credit risk provisions and loan impairment 5.3 billion US dollars which is decreased by 30% from 1st half of 2010 and 19% 2nd half of 2010
  • 78.7 percent advances to deposits ration which is also increased by 77.9% from 1st half of 2010 and 78.1% from 2nd half of 2010
  • Capital ratio of Core tier 1 increased to 10.8 percent from 10.5 percent during 2011

According to above financial facts and figures of HSBC’s performance shows that bank has increased performance in 2011 as compared to 2010.  All financial indicators show positive or improved position against 2010 performance. Company has improved profit before tax and in 2011. Attributable profit and Return on average equity of ordinary shareholders and earning per share increased in 2011. Enhanced earning per share can attract more investors for bank in the future. Bank has also decreased its loans and risk provisions. Advances to loans have been increased as compared to previously. In conclusion, it is expected that currently and in future can attract large number of investors. All the financial indicators of bank are going to positive or right direction to enhance profitability and productivity. Further, commercial, global and retail banking’s performance has been improved. Bank is earning vast amount of profit in all regions of the world. Moreover, bank has also improved its cost efficiency ratio.

2.3. Discuss methods to recommend a course of action, or organizational improvement, as the result of conclusions, including methods of presenting the recommendation

The recommendations to improve organization are as under:

  • It is recommended that strategic manager should emphasis on developing a competitive strategy and creating value for their customers.
  • Practiced in customer focused and larger organizations like HSBC, business leaders or professional  marketer should make the marketing decisions
  • As good financial position in 2011, HBSC required to make a stronger strategies to maintain sustainable market position not only in UK but also all over the world
  • Due to increased earnings per share, corporate relations and marketing managers should speed up their efforts to attract various investors or expand operations of the bank all over the world.
  • Today, there is globalization therefore, managers of HSBC should make strong competitive strategies and create absolute advantage over their competitors in order to get long term market leadership.
  • HSBC should more improve human resource and financial functions to develop a motivated workforce and good financial results
  • Information and technology is the essence of today successful managers. Therefore, strategic managers are required to get aware about important information relevant to business and use sophisticated technology to introduce innovative and unique products and services.
  • Decision making is also the essence of managerial job so strategic manager should make prudent decisions in today’s competitive environment
Leadership Dissertations MBA Project Strategic Management and Leadership HSBC

Leadership Dissertations

3. Understanding core marketing concepts, the need for staff increases and the evaluation and support of others

3.1. Outline the core marketing concepts relevant to the role of a strategic manager

The various concepts relevant to the role of strategic manager are depicted below:

  • The Strategic Manager of HSBC analyzes his role according to marketing scenario. The role of strategic manager is not only the make the policies of the bank but also to satisfy the employees and customer of the HSBC bank. The strategic manager makes the policies for whole of organization. Strategic decision is based on the needs satisfaction not only the customer of bank but also the employees of HSBC Bank.
  • Planning is most important steps for the strategic manager. The HBSC strategic manager careful plans the policies of the organization after keen observation and analyzing of internal and external environments. The planning needs to organize in a proper way. It will tell the bank manager that that can perform the work in a better form. Manager allocates the works to his subordinates according to plan.
  • Manager analyzes the market with reference to market or current banking industry. Strategic manager makes all necessary strategic marketing decision according keeping in the view of external and internal environments of the organization.
  • In HSBC Bank, a strategic manager analyzes the organization resources by adopting the SWOT analysis, PEST analysis etc. So the manager can make better strategic decision for the bank. There is slump in allover the business of the world, so the role of Strategic manager becomes very crucial (Burkardt, 2006).
  • The major trends in the Banking sector include the minimization of interest, increase in mergers and acquisitions, increasing the market shares of larger banks.
    • The major strengths of HSBC bank include large size of the bank, have large market share, and have ability to successful acquisition & mergers. The large market shares give the industry average return.
    • The strategic manager of HSBC bank also analyzes the current marketing situation by applying the PESTLE analysis. The PESTLE analysis means analyzes the Political factors, Economic factors, social factors, technological factor, legal factor and environmental factors. For example the now the current market situation is towards fall. The international business is towards the slump.
    • HSBC bank wants to open business in another country, the manager analyze the current environments of such country. Manager observes the current market situation, political situation, behavior the people towards the financial activities. After close observation of such analysis, the manager is able to take such strategic decision.

3.2. Explain methods to be used to identify and agree an increase in staffing levels

The strategic managers continuously identify the staffing levels for the bank. The needs of the staff are changing with the passage of time.  The sales staff of sales department of HSBC bank is vary from time to time. Employees are the also recruit according to needs of the job. The new hire meets the criteria of the job.  So the strategic manager with help of human resource manager is continuously observing the needs of the bank.

HSBC bank management identify the need of staff, they identify the job requirements and create the job profile for the new hire.  There are different methods to identify the staffing levels of the HSBC Bank. The main methods includes the staffing are Delphi technique, zero based forecasting, bottom up approach, relationship between volume of sales and number of work force required, Simulation models, and using the available human resource data. (Mondy, 2008). In Delphi technique panel of independent experts together and estimates and forecast the future human resource. The main goal is to reach some sort of consensus, and help to bank to reach the planning of human resource. The zero based forecasting is to estimate the current staff level from zero point for future. In this forecasting the manager estimates the current staff requirement and creates the new vacancies for future. (Caruth, Caruth and Pane, 2009). The strategic manger follows the same methods to identify the staff requirement which are the suitable for the bank.

The major planning for staffing for bank is an important work of human resource and strategic manager.  In the planning process, the strategic manager includes the information creating a strategic plan. It means the planning for hiring the right people at the right time and in the place. This planning also includes the information about the labor market. The labor market factors are employment trends, skills for the required job means qualification. It tells that how HSBC bank plans the labor requirement for their departments. It also helps the bank to analyze the internal or external available human resource.

HSBC bank plans the requirement of the staff for current and future, than they recruit and select the staff according to their job requirement. The decision is made for the growth of the business of bank, change the job in the business and those vacancies are filled that were created by retirement or resignation  (123helpme.com, 2011).

The strategic manager also manages the diversity of toward the improvement in the performance of the bank. The diversity provides the source of opportunity in the case of employment and customers. If the bank manages the diversity in a better way it will provide the competitive edge.  Diversity plays a vital role in the success of the bank. If the bank manages the diversity in a proper way it improves performance of employees and performance of the bank (hsbc.com, 2011).

3.3. Analyze methods or processes to assess, or evaluate, the performance of others, and to support performance improvement

It is most critical and important steps for any organization towards organizational success. The basic purpose of the performance evaluation is to improve the performance of the organization. It is also building process of trust between the customer and employees of HSBC Bank. According to Behn, there are eight reasons to measure the organization performance. The main important It also helps in evaluate the objectives of the organization. point or reason is to measure that how HSBC bank is performing. It will inform the strategic manager either it is relates to organization (hks.harvard.edu, 2011). Performance measurement also helps to the strategic manager to control the systems and keep check point on the employees of the bank. It also helps in forecast the budget of the bank. Employees got reward after the performance evaluation. Performance benchmarks are settled after the performance evaluation of the bank.

Performance evaluation is a necessary for an organization, bad impact created on the performance & repute of the Bank. Allocation of resources becomes the problem for the strategic manager of the HSBC bank. The manager could not identify the need of resource without the performance evaluation. Without the evaluation of the bank, the manager could not recognize that either the performance of the bank is towards improving or declining. The employees would not be awarding without performance evaluation according to their performance (Mondy, 2011).

There are difference performance evaluation methods to evaluate the performance according to their business.  The basic methods are works standards methods, ranking methods forced distribution methods and behaviorally anchored rating scale method.  These methods helps to the manager to evaluate the performance of the employees critically and also help them to compare the performance of with each other. The strategic manager of HSBC Bank sets the desired goal for the success of the organization.  In the planning process the manager identifies the needs of planning and planned the work or action according to their requirements planning the manger identify the need of action. The strategic managers sets the goal, than divide the goals according to the divisional or department level. The diving the goals according to their specification/ work spatiality of the department is a setting the standards towards the achievement of the desired goals of the bank.

HSBC bank may also use the other approaches towards the performance evaluation. The other methods are performance reviews, self-evaluation, and peer evaluation, target setting for individual or groups and measuring individual or groups.


123helpme.com (2011) An Analytical Report on Human Resources at HSBC Group Plc.

Burkardt, (2006) Critical Analysis and Evaluation of Strategies Adopted by World Class Financial Institutions, Nordersedt, Germoney:

Business Link (2005) My Personal Development Plan, Business Link: Crown copyright 2005.

Caruth, D.L., Caruth, G.D. and Pane, S.S. (2009) Staffing the Contemporary Organization, Greenwood Publishing Group.

frankbradley (2011) The Importance Of A Personal Development Plan.

Hitt, Irland and Hoskisson (2004) Strategic Management, 6th edition, South Western.

hks.harvard.edu (2011) Performance Leadership Report.

HSBC Interim Report (2010) Interim Report 2010: Strong, steadfast, sustainable.

hsbc.com (2011) About HSBC.

hsbc.com (2011) Diversity.

Interim Report (2011) Financial Highlights.

knowledge.hsbc.co.uk (2011) Personal development plans.

Mondy, R.W. (2008) Human Resource Management, 10th edition, Prentice Hall.

Mondy, R., (2011) Human Resource Management, 10th edition, Prentic Hall Inc.

palgrave.com (2011) About personal development planning (PDP).

Wells, D.L. (n.d) Strategic Managementfor Senior Leaders: A Handbook for Implementation, Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office.

 If you enjoyed reading this post on strategic management and leadership at HSBC, I would be very grateful if you could help spread this knowledge by emailing this post to a friend, or sharing it on Twitter or Facebook. Thank you.

Dissertation Employee Health and Safety in the UK Hospitality Industry

Employee Health and Safety in the UK Hospitality Industry

View This Dissertation Here

A significant part of the economy of any country is made up of hospitality and entertainment industries. Any country’s economy has a huge employment proportion contributed by these industries, both direct employees along with part time and contract staff is hired. To keep the customers satisfied and to provide them with high standard of services, hospitality industry need to keep up with the pace which can be really fast and often requires employees to dedicate long hours to their work life. Therefore, to increase the productivity and morale of the employees, and to contribute to the well being of the employees, human resource management of these industries needs to provide its employees with a safe and healthy working environment. The hospitality industries workforce consists of a huge variety of employees and backend staff is often exposed to a variety of safety and health hazards due to the tasks they need to perform in the kitchen or other specifics tasks that they are asked to perform. Hazards such as chemicals, noise and thermal stress are a great threat to the health of employees and they also may be exposed to the risk of disorders like musculoskeletal.

Employee Health and Safety Dissertation Employee Health and Safety in the UK Hospitality Industry

Employee Health and Safety

A risk like fire and explosion, burs, cuts, scalds, electrocution, falls, knocks, slips and trips are always lurking around the corner. Such risk are called occupational accidents and diseases which can result in absenteeism on employees part, suffering, sickness, loss in productivity, disability or can lead to deaths of the employees as well. However, all of the above accidents can be prevented if the company has devised a proper guideline for its employees and also provide them guidance on the identification of work hazards and how to prevent them. It is mandatory that employers should work in collaboration with the employees to avoid these accidents and to establish a safe and healthy working environment. The current study will therefore scrutinize through various cases of the health and safety management in the hotel and restaurant industry as well as various research articles on the topic. Therefore, a case study approach will be followed which will further identify how there is a need for efficient health and safety management strategies. The study will be focusing on establishing a systematic approach to analyze empirical studies and management systems that need to shift from the traditional approach to the new innovative approaches so that the need for the protection of employees’ safety and rights in this industry and its significant importance can be highlighted. Although the interest in the health and safety systems have risen in the previous years, there have been a number of question that are still unanswered in the health and safety community that includes the employers, the unions, the government and the specialists. Hence, the study will also aim towards answering questions like the importance of protection of employees’ safety and rights in the UK industry, the system needed for health and safety management in the UK and how this system will aim towards the reduction in injury and disease.

The dissertation objectives for this study are as follows

  • What is the importance of protection of employees’ safety and rights in this hotel and restaurant industry?
  • Is there a need for the health and safety management system in the hotel and restaurant industry?
  • How the health and safety management system will aim towards the reduction in injury and disease in HORECA sector?
  • Is there a need to shift from traditional to innovative management system in the hotel and restaurant industry?

Question: How have you handled employee health and safety in the workplace? Feel free to leave a comment below.

Human Resources Project e-Recruitment e-HR

MBA Human Resources Project e-Recruitment e-HR

The emergence of Internet technology has virtually changed the way humans execute their functions in all phases of activities. The Human Resources Department is not left out, as the adoption and implementation of web technology has revolutionalized the functions and responsibility of the HRM.  Thus, web technology, through e-recruitment is now being used in the recruitment of potential workers in every organization.  E-recruitment has been proved to be an efficient, quick and cost effective means of hiring quality workers into an organization. This paper is aimed at understanding the concept behind e-recruitment technology. These include the origin, types and elements of e-recruitment. The paper also discussed the effects of e-recruitment on the cost, time and efficiency of an organization. The relationship existing among the three variables (cost, time and efficiency) as well as their collective impact on organization is also discussed in this paper.


For the past ten years, E-recruitment has continued to attract the attention of Human Resource Managers, all over the globe. This relatively new technology that makes exclusive use of the internet is now being recognized as a cheaper and wide-reaching methodology, for recruitment of workers. This is shows that the revolution of internet technology is currently spreading over the world of job hunting and hiring. The term e-recruitment, which is also known as online recruitment, cyber cruting, or internet recruiting, is used to describe the formal sourcing of job information on the vast World Wide Web. The term was first mentioned in articles during the 1980s. There are two major methodologies for e-recruitment. The first one is the use of corporate web site for recruitment. In this case, companies have corporate websites in which specially designed recruitment web pages are maintained for employment of people. The second methodology is the posting of jobs vacancies on online commercial jobs boards like monster.com. In this case, companies advertise vacant positions on other website that specialize in recruitment. Some good examples of these websites are naukri.com, timesjob.com, monster.com. Nowadays, a growing number of companies and organizations are resorting to these two methodologies for recruitment of skilled and talented workers.

e hr dissertation Human Resources Project e Recruitment e HR

e-hr dissertation

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HR)

According to Jim (2013), “Electronic human resource management (E-HRM) is the process of integrating components of information technology into the structural design of the human resource department”. Such components of information technology are specifically designed to help with tasks associated with human resources”. Adoption of E-HR is one of the best ways through which an organization can streamline its human resources. This goes a long way in making the human resource department to become more efficient and effective, thereby minimizing its operational and production costs. A typical E-HR suite is capable of handling many important tasks such as staffing, training, and payroll. These customized software suites is particularly suitable for handling all those tasks times that are time-consuming. This gives HR employees more time to concentrate on strategic processes that will improve the organization (Bondarouk and Ruël, 2006).

The Human resources department is a very important section in every organization. The department serves as the communication link between management of an organization and its employees. They are responsible for maintaining a satisfied workforce. Thus, if they ever err in any of their objectives, the company involved is going to have a bunch of disgruntled employees as its workforce. The department is also responsible for recruiting workforce for the organization. At times, carrying out all these tasks can be very difficult and time-consuming. This is the major reason why an ever increasing number of Human Resource Departments have begun the process of installing various forms of electronic human resource management to help out their HR managers (Buckley et al, 2004).

However, it is very important to note that E-HRM cannot replace the traditional human resource departments completely, rather it can serve as a very valuable supplement for the department (Jim, 2013) By installing E-HRM software, a business can streamline the more detailed tasks associated with the HR department.

In every organization, the E-HRM plays great role fulfilling the immense responsibilities of the Human Resource Manager. For instance, E-HRM can include software devoted to payroll issues thereby saving the Human Resource Manager, the time required to attain payroll issues. E-HRM can also be supportive in terms of staffing. During recruitment, the suite through its e-recruitment components can eradicate the stress and time-consuming processes associated with selecting the most suitable applicants..

E-HR also plays significant roles in the management aspect of the Human Resource Managers where it is actively involved in drafting policies and controlling both the traffic and collection of electronic information. Still under the management aspects, E-HR helps in controlling and organizing data within an organization. Accomplishing this requires the creation of effective record management policies. Such policies facilitate lean data storage which involves maintaining pertinent information while removing data as it becomes irrelevant (Jim, 2013).

So in summary, E-HR is a very clear example of using technology to boost the productivity of an organization. The fact that E-HR software suite are technologically secured means that the security of any organization that implement and interact with this piece of technology is also secured. The application of E-HR suite in Human Resource Department can boost the sustainability of the organizations. As already pointed out, one area in which E-HR has been successfully implemented is in the recruitment of the organization’s workforce.

E-recruitment definition

E-recruiting can be defined as the use of the World Wide Web and its peripherals, to attract suitable candidates for employment purposes (CIPD, 2011). In other words, E-recruitment is a process through which electronic resources were used to draw the attention of job seekers to vacant positions in corporations (Stone, 2006). Over the years, e-recruitment has recorded unprecedented growth and its applicability has continued to expand in many sectors of human endeavors. Many reasons have been attributed to the tremendous success recorded by this relatively new technology. Recruitment is a process that connects employers to prospective employees. It’s a process in which capable employees are located and incorporated into the workforce of organizations. Recruitment usually begins with the searching of prospective employees and ends when the job applications are submitted. E-recruitment is one of the most powerful and cost-effective ways of recruiting staff for an organization as it can play active roles in each phase of the recruitment exercise.

In practice, there are numerous ways through which E-recruitment can be implemented. It may be conducted through the use of the official website of the organization. Alternatively, the company may decide to go through a third-party job site or job board.  E-recruitment can also comprise the use of CV database, search engine marketing or social media platforms to fill vacancies. The common factor here is the use of internet in each of these methodologies. This is clearly in conformation with the definition of E-recruitment, which is the use of the internet in conducting recruitment exercise.

Also, there are different ways through which job seekers can take part in an e-recruitment exercise. The job seekers can log in on the employers’ recruitment website and submit their CVs online. Alternatively, they can submit their CVs on special database for prospective employers to assess. Today, many company and recruitment agents have moved much of their recruitment process online so as to improve the speed by which candidates can be matched with live vacancies, and reduce the cost and time duration of these exercises.

Historical Background

Barber (1998) defined recruitment as; “those practices and activities carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees”. Recruitment is almost as old as the mankind. However, e-recruitment is a relatively new term that has just attained significant success within a short duration of time. As have already stated earlier, e-recruitment is simply the conduction of job advertisement, job application and selection of new employees on the vast internet world. Historically, e-recruitment can be traced to the existence in 1980s, of independent job boards popularly known as bulletin board systems. Since then, this method has a recorded an unprecedented increase in its acceptability and implementation among several organizations of the whole world. The United States of America was credited as starting the global trend, with the launch of monter.com in 1994. The significant success of e-recruitment prompted Edgley (1995) to declare that, “the future of the recruitment industry is on the internet”. An analysis conducted by Onrec (2005) showed that between 2003 and 2005, 94 percent of the world biggest companies have adopted e-recruitment methods, as the major means of recruiting new employees. A survey conducted by Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) revealed that up to 64 percent of the UK organizations used e-recruitment as far back as 2006 (Parry and Tyson, 2008). Cappelli (2001) declared that 90 percent of US companies were already doing recruiting by internet then. Today, the internet has been globally recognized as the sustainable avenue for recruitment of prospective employees.

How E- recruitment is linked with Human Resource

Having defined e-recruitment, it is very important for us to understand how this system is linked to technology and Management. The technologies we are talking about here are the HR systems, while the management includes Line Managers and Human Resource manager who are actively involved in recruitment exercise.

Naturally, the Human Resource Manager has essential roles to play in e-recruitment. Of course, the Human Resource Manager is responsible for facilitating and coordinating the recruitment exercise. Thus, the use of e-recruitment can go a long way in reducing the burden of the Human Resource Manager which will in turn; enable the Human Resource manager to operate on a strategic level within the organization. Just like the Human Resource Manager, the Line Manager also has a very important role to play in the recruitment exercise. The Line Manager is mainly concerned with the selection of applications submitted by job applicants. The selection is usually in relation to the vacancies that are listed in accordance with the job role. The roles of the two managers help to boost the effectiveness of the recruitment exercise (Research Advisory Panel, 2006).

The discussion conducted so far shows that the Human Resource Manager acts as the bridge that link the Line managers with the job applicants. However, the roles of the two managers can be greatly facilitated with the introduction of Information Technology tools, such as the application tracking software. Details of these tools are discussed under “Elements of e-recruitment”.

Types of E-recruitment

There are two main methodologies for conducting employment on the vast internet world. These are: (1) Posting vacancies on the official websites of the organization and (2) Making use of Third party websites which enabled a huge marketplace for recruitment. The two processes serve the same purpose of using the internet to get the best suitable candidates that have the right skills, knowledge and abilities required for vacant positions in organizations.

The first method of e-recruitment is particularly popular among organizations that have strong IT culture. It is also the best alternative for organizations that conduct regular recruitment exercises. In that case, it is more economical for such organizations to invest on their own website and equipped it with the necessary modules to handle e-recruitment internally.

The second method of e-recruitment is used primarily by organizations that lacked online presence on the vast internet world. In this case, the job of online advertisement of vacancies in such organizations is conducted by companies that are specialty in that area. These companies range from the fully specialized ones like Monster.com to the less specialized ones like social networks site and online forums.

Even though the two methods generally differ in their modus operandi, companies that have vacant positions can use the two methods at the same time. Organizations that have strong online presence can also include a “link of apply” on the third party website. When a prospective employee click on this “link of apply”, he or she will be redirected to the company’s website to start the application process. E-recruitment is source of huge revenue for owners of these third party websites. According to Silber (2012), “International data corporation (IDC) estimates $5.3 billion was generated in the US in 2011 through online recruitment industry and it is roughly increasing by 4 percent until 2015”.

Elements of E-recruitment

For any e-recruitment platform to be reliable and sustainable, there are certain elements that must be integrated into its operational structure (Parry and Tyson, 2008). These elements of e-recruitment have their place individually within the online recruitment strategy of every company. The main elements of recruitment include:

  • Applicant Tracking
  • Employer Web Site
  • Job Boards
  • Online Testing

According to a publication by Online Recruitment Marketing Council (2004); “the effectiveness of combining several of these elements in a cohesive strategy is a genuine example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts”. Many organizations have recorded significant success in integrating these elements into the operational structure of their e-recruitment module. This is because; a combination of these elements enables the recruitment processes to be fast, effective and cheap. It also reduce the manpower required to oversee the whole procedure, thereby enabling staffs of the Human Resource Department to concentrate on strategic operations that are specifically meant to move the company ahead. According to a publication by Online Recruitment Marketing Council (2004), “a clear understanding of these elements is very necessary when designing an online recruitment strategy”

Applicant Tracking

This is also known by several other names such as: Candidate Tracking, Candidate Management, Candidate Relationship Management and Applicant Database. Just like the name sounds, applicant tracking is a specially designed feature that enables the personnel responsible for the recruitment exercises to identify the status or progress of each candidate with respect to the jobs for which he or she has applied. In other world, the applicant tracking system help those in charge of the recruitment exercises to identify the number of applicants that have submitted applications for a particular position as well as those that waiting for interview. This customized system includes “an analysis of business processes within the end-user company from which will be derived a system configuration for the chosen Applicant Tracking system” (Online Recruitment Marketing Council, 2004).

Some of the features that are contained in a typical tracking system include:

  • Full history of the applicant
  • Ability to send e-mails to the applicants. The system must be capable of sending emails individually or in batches
  • Ability to conduct a search on the applicant’s database
  • Ability of every worker that is involved in the recruitment process to make use of the same system, For instance, the Applicant Tracking System will enable reviewers to review the CV, while interviewers will also have the ability to provide feedbacks for candidates that were interviewed for a vacant position.
  • It will also have reporting features that will enable the Human Resource Manager to identify the pipeline supply of candidates for key positions and measure time to hire.

Employer Website

This is also known Job page, Careers site and Recruitment pages. It is the most important aspect of an organization’s online recruitment strategy. It is the platform through which the full details of the job opportunities are communicated to the whole world. It is also the platform through which important data are collected from prospective employees. So in a nutshell, the employer website is the heart of an organization’s online recruitment strategy. The Job pages are updated with new vacancies or amended job details through simple web-based forms that are only accessible through the admin panel. It is very important to point out here that the Employer Website must have the same branding as the official websites of the organizations.

Some of the important features which a typical employer website must have include:

  • Ability to enable visitors to conduct job search
  • It must also enable prospective employees to create a profile, submit core personal details as well as CV
  • Apply for jobs online
  • It must have set-up job ‘alerts’ that will notify applicants of any changes to the jobs they applied or the availability of new job offers. Such notifications are usually conducted through e-mails.
  • Enables both applicants and non applicants to view the status of all on-line applications
  • It must allow a single application to be submitted for multiple job vacancies
  • It will enables applicants and even administrators to send job details to their friends

Job Boards

This is also known as Job sites. It performs the same function as the recruitment advertising section of a newspaper or magazine. Hence, this element of e-recruitment enables applicants to access several job vacancies that exist in different organizations. Generally, job boards feature jobs in different sectors and geographies, each carrying different branding. This means that job boards are mostly restricted to a particular class of jobs (such as the health service), region or even levels of seniority. It may also include additional information, which could be in form of articles or editorials. This additional information helps to attract the specific class of visitors that are needed by the organization.

There are some factors that must be considered before selecting job boards to use. Some of these factors are: cost, sector, location of the organization, etc. Thus, it is very important for the Human Resource Manager to obtain audited figures for the relative popularity of different job boards before making a choice.

Apart from the services mentioned above, some job boards also render additional services that are specifically aim at helping job seekers. For instance, some of these agencies are known to maintain CV databases which can be access by prospective employers and agencies. There is a variety of charging models for this kind of service which aim to make it cost-effective and quick for you to find suitable candidates. The features of job boards are exactly the same as those of Employer Websites.

Online Testing

Another name for online testing is Psychometric testing. The term is used to describe the process of conducting some kind of assessment of candidates over the internet. This internet-based assessment can be “factual (for example numeracy, comprehension etc.) to the assessments of personality and identification of most appropriate kinds of work” (Online Recruitment Marketing Council, 2004). This is the main reason why employers use online testing as a selection tool as well as a special tool that help job seekers to identify another career opportunity.


Apart from the four elements of e–recruitment discussed so far, there are still other elements that can be of great help to the recruiter. However, these extra elements normally require one or more of the major elements to function. Some examples are as follows:

  • Intelligent CV parsing tools: These are online- based tools that validate the submitted CVs. This validation exercise, which is usually automatic, involves the extraction of unstructured data, and modifying them into a ‘structured’ format.  The data that are usually targeted by this tool include: name, address, skills, employment history, education etc. The CV parsing tool may either be designed as a standalone system or incorporated into the functional and structural design of an Applicant tracking system.
  • Multiple posting tools  - These are special tools that simplify the tedious process of posting job details of vacant positions on multiple job boards. These tools also include the utilities for managing the purchasing of advertising from the job boards. It also enables the recruiter to evaluate the success rates of the job boards.
e hrm dissertations Human Resources Project e Recruitment e HR

e-hrm dissertations

New Trends in E-Recruitment

Information Technology is very dynamic and progressive. The fact that e-recruitment is a product of Information Technology also means that its methodology is constantly changing and expanding. Certain new trends in e-recruitment are currently emerging in the vast internet world. It is very important for Human Resource Managers to identify this new trend and take advantage of digital tools and resources in order to find the best talent.


LinkedIn is a networking platform that now doubles as an e-recruitment tool. This online platform that has more than 150 million users is a reliable alternative to the popularly known job-boards. The main features that enable LinkedIn to serve as an e-recruitment tool include: ability of employers to post jobs, receive applications, and recognize ideal candidates. This networking platform also has recommendation and introduction capabilities in its functional structures.


This is also another online networking platform that has recruitment ability. However, twitter is not strictly for recruitment and is therefore less effective. Nevertheless, twitter enables employers looking for job seekers to get the word out quickly. Apart from allowing organizations to maintain an online presence, twitter also enable them to manage their company’s image successfully. This is always an important consideration for new hires. Thus, it’s advisable for recruiters to engage more in conversations with potential hires in twitter rather than relying only on posting details of job vacancies.

Video assessment

Video assessment is a relatively new recruitment tool that is yet to be embraced by many organizations out there. In this case, applicants are required to submit video formats of their introductions and answers to certain questions, together with their applications. This tool helps the recruiters to review the shortlisted applicants, prior to the interview. This saves time and cost for the recruiter.

Mobile Recruitment

This technology is also very new and has not been accepted by a great number of organizations. It involves the development of recruiting applications for different mobile platforms, such as IPhone, Android, Blackberry and Windows. There are wide varieties of such apps. Some allow recruiters to develop questions and send to applicants, who then answer by video and send back. There are also certain mobile apps that enable recruiters and applicants to fix interview dates that can be updated on both their calendars. Other mobile apps allow recruiters to do sophisticated web searches for applicants, identify the most suitable candidates for the vacant position and then contact them instantly. There are also other mobile apps that allow employers to post details of job vacancies to multiple web job boards simultaneously with just a single click.

Advantages of E-recruitment

Studies conducted by several recruitment experts’ show that an increasing number of organizations are using e-recruitment for identifying the most suitable candidates for open vacancies. Lang et al. (2011) identify 14 major advantages of e-recruitment. These advantages are in agreement with the opinions of many scholars (Lang et al, 2011). The advantages are as follows:

  • Cost efficiency and relative affordability
  •  Time saving
  • Efficiency (Hiring Efficiency)
  •  Ability to expand the geographical scope of recruiting measures
  • Corporate policy
  • Targeting of the right group of candidates
  •  Increase in number of qualified applicants
  • Independence of place and time, as everything is conducted strictly online
  •  Portrays a better image of the organization
  •  Provision of adequate information about the organization as well as additional workplace
  •  Realization of competitive advantage
  •  Recruiting qualified staff more easily
  •  Updating of job and applicant data
  •  Usability

Disadvantages of E-recruitment

Despite the immense benefits accruable from the use of this piece of information technology, a number of disadvantages do occur and many of these challenges are synonymous with the normal challenges encountered in the use of Information Technology (Thompson et al., 2008).  To start with, most people are still of the opinion that the internet is not the first port of call for job seekers (Galanaki, 2002).  However, the major challenges of e-recruitment revolve on the likely effects its implementation is going to have on company’s overall performance, especially in terms of its effectiveness and behavioral influences.

The main challenge that faces e-recruitment exercises in our today’s contemporary world is mainly on the trade-off between quantity (increasing) and quality (decreasing) of the job applicants. Of course, one great advantage of e-recruitment is attraction of huge number of job seekers. But the higher the number of job applicants, the higher the number of unqualified job seekers (Pearce and Tuten, 2001; Chapman and Webster, 2003; Barber, 2006). Unfortunately, this negativity is capable of raising the cost and time duration of the processing.

Also, e-recruitment can change the social interactions of the job applicants and this can even cause the job seeker to lack the ability to present his or her own KSAOs to the employer (Stone et al., 2006).  For instant, it is very important for a marketing manager or assistant to be outgoing and a little bit talkative. Unfortunately, it is practically impossible to perfectly measure these attributes through e-recruitment. Indeed, what Pin et al. (2001) called “Lack of Human touch” can have negative effect on e-recruitment processes.

This method of recruitment also lack the features needed to perfectly address the issue of discrimination in course of selection (Barber, 2006). This claim is confirmed by the result of a research conducted by Garcı´a-Izquierdo et al (2010) on companies listed on Spanish Stock Exchange. The result of the survey conducted by this team shows that the level and type of information which some of these companies ask in their application forms, is capable of giving rise to discrimination. Barber (2006) also pointed out the possibility of disable people applying for positions that are impossible for them to handle.

Another survey conducted by Pin et al. (2001) in Europe revealed two other disadvantages of e-recruitment. These are poor segmentation and higher rate of employees turn out. As pointed out in the last section, one of the advantages of e-recruitment is “targeting of the right group of candidates.” However, the result of the survey conducted by Pin et al. (2001) contradicted this claim. According to the result of the survey, about 59 percent of the companies interviewed listed “targeting of the right group of candidates” as the main reason for not using e-recruitment. Pin et al (2001) blamed this on the fact that “matching the position with the candidates is impossible” because of the broad accessibility offered by the internet technology.  This put companies at the risk of having less qualified applicants with the cost of losing qualified ones. Even though the level of classification of contents on the internet has been improved and it is now possible for companies to find the related domain, the footprint of the problem pointed out by Pin and his team still remains observable (Suvankulov et al., 2012)

The second disadvantage of e-recruitment, discovered by Pin et al. (2001) is higher rate of employees’ turnover. This claim is confirmed by Smith and Rupp (2004) in their study on managerial challenges of e-recruiting. For instance, an employed person can get interested in a vacant position in an organization. This is possible since all information is freely accessible through the internet.

Finally, the low level of internet accessibility in certain parts of the world is another major disadvantage of e-recruitment. The absence of internet connectivity and its lack of awareness will surely keep qualified job seekers in the dark.


Even though e-recruitment has so many advantages over the orthodox methods of recruitment, it is not advisable to completely replace the recruitment process of an organization with the electronic methods. Similarly, it will be a very costly mistake for an organization to continue to depend solely on the traditional method for its recruitment exercise.  The best alternative will be to supplement the traditional method of recruitment with the electronic method. The loopholes of e-recruitment can be covered by the traditional methods while the whole process can be made faster, cheaper and more efficient by incorporating electronic technology into it. When two vacancies are there and two candidates are available the companies do not have much choice, thus they prefer to widen their search and attracts numerous applications. Indeed, receiving application manually can be time-consuming. Manual sorting of applications is not only tedious, but is a sheer wastage of resources. E-recruitment is the surest way through which organizations can facilitate the smooth flow of recruitment process in today’s competitive world. This technology provides a straightforward and stressful way through which employers meet their prospective employees. Thus, it won’t be wise to discard this wonderful piece of technology. Rather, e-recruitment should be use to make the traditional method of recruitment to be faster, cheaper and more efficient. It’s also the best alternative that can be used to minimize the huge cost of job advertisement.

How e-recruitment affects cost, time and efficiency

As already pointed out, there are many advantages that endear e-recruitment to the heat of many Human Resource Managers. Top on the list are: cost efficiency, time saving and efficiency. These three advantages can collectively boost the effectiveness of the overall recruitment process.

Cost Efficiency: E- recruitment is generally cost effective and thus, can help companies to save huge amount of money. Unlike other form of media e.g. newspaper, it is relatively cheaper to post job vacancies on website.  This enables recruiters to advertise job vacancies at very low cost. According to Othman and Musa (2006), the four main ways through which recruitment cost are reduced with the use of online methodology are:

  • Costs saved directly from the advertisements posted on other medium of communication e.g. Newspapers
  • Reduces mail costs from paying fees to the head recruiters or Job fairs
  • Reduces the workload of the of the Human Resource Department
  • Posting through emailing is relatively cheaper than Phone calls and fax

Even though the communication methods used in e-recruitment is cheaper, the whole process is still faster and easier. Also, developing a career website is also cheaper when compare to the cost require in tracking down the details of every applicants that applied for a vacant position. Of course, this reduces the number of manpower required as there would be no need for manual sorting of applications (White, 2008).

Time:  E-Recruitment has more effective advantages in saving time. The fact that recruiters can use the E-Recruitment processes together with the traditional recruitment methods means that the submitted applications can be sourced and processed quickly and yet adequately (Marr, 2007).  This saves long hours of sourcing and processing applications. According to the study of Barber (2006), “the ease of completing online application form and the time taken to process applications are done in minutes faster than weeks”. This also saves time for both the recruiters and job seekers. The structural design of e-recruitment platforms allows recruiters to pre select an application as well as obtains quick response electronically. All these feature save time for the recruitment process.

Efficiency: Hiring efficiency is another major advantage of e-recruitment. As we have seen so far, the internet technology reduces the cost of recruitment by ‘reducing employee turnover as well as the staffing costs (Stone et al., 2006). All these increase the hiring efficiency of the e-recruitments.

The three aforementioned variables, namely cost, time and efficiency are closely relation in terms of operation. For instance, reducing the cost of conducting recruitment exercise as well as the time duration sorting, selection and processing of job applications will surely go a long way boosting the hiring efficiency of the organization. As already pointed out, these three variables are very important the success of any organization.

The relationships between the three variables (Cost, time and efficiency) and their importance to the organization

The highly competitive nature of today’s business world has made it very necessary for businesses to seek the most cost effective way to recruit new employees as well as for employees to seek employers (Ratling 2012; Vera etal, 2009). Many organizations now prioritized the recruitment of the most optimum employees because of the overall effect such a workforce will have on the progress of the organization (Vera etal, 2009).  Obtaining the best workforce for an organization can be easily accomplished through e-recruitment. Indeed, e-recruitment is known to be very effective in attracting administrative positions (Dictionaries, 2000).  In the last section, we stated that, the three variables; cost, time and efficiency are closely relation in terms of operation.

To start with, the cost of e-recruitment is relatively cheaper than other methods of recruitment. Despite the growing cost of running business in our society today, it is still very necessary for organizations to adopt effective methods that will enable the obtainment of high quality employees that are required to attain a competitive advantage over others. E-recruitment offers a cost-effective way of achieving this goal. A cost-effective, but reliable means of recruitment can go a long way in boosting the efficiency of any organization. This option is exactly what e-recruitment is offering.

A cost effective method of recruitment should also be time efficient. In other words, it must be capable of saving lots of time for both employers and job-seekers. Such system must provide round the clock services at a very fast rate, without compromising the quality of the work that is being rendered. The process of sorting out both eligible and ineligible candidates must be done quickly and efficiently, without the involvement of any middle persons. Thus, both cost effectiveness and time-efficiency are two great factors that help organization to be more efficient in rendering of services.

Significant strides have been recorded by the adoption and subsequent implementation of e-recruitment. This is seen in the statistical figures of some researchers. According to a survey conducted by iLogos.com, about 92% of Fortune 500 companies now have websites that are specifically meant for careers, while 96% of recruiters now publicize their vacant positions on their websites (Borstorff et al, Marker, and  Bennett 13). Verhoeven and Williams (2008) attributed this significant rise to the following advantages: “reduced costs, faster processes, wider accessibility, improve reputation and brand, higher quality of applicants, better match of the position, 24/7 running ability, and reduction of unqualified applicants”

Generally, the efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and profitability of every organization can be greatly enhanced by information technology (Looise, 2004; Fredric, 2001). These are exactly the effects e-recruitment has on organizations. Apart from these, the adoption and implementation of e-recruitment also save costs and maintain quality of customer service by reducing the time and resources dedicated to administrative tasks (Richards-Carpenter, 1996).  So in summary, the adoption and implementation of e-recruitment enables an organization to achieve its strategic alignment, boost its business intelligence and enhance its overall efficiency and effectiveness.


Even though e-recruitment is a relatively new terminology, a lot of researches have been conducted to unravel its immense potential and advantages. Thus, many authors have employed several methodologies in analyzing the effects of e-recruitment on the cost, time and efficiency of an organization.

Holm (2010) conducted a research in which he determined whether the adoption and implementation of e-recruitment has any positive impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of the recruitment exercise. He made use of three large organizations that have well-established e-recruitment practices in his research. These case studies were conducted using qualitative research methods. One great advantage of this methodology is that it enables researchers to study processes of recruitment in their social context. The data used in the research were collected from multiple sources that are readily accessible for the analyst and these data were predominantly qualitative (Holm, 2010).  In order to get a more comprehensive idea of how online recruitment methods were used at the studied companies, the researcher analyzed the content of corporate recruitment web pages and the job ads that the case companies placed on their websites (Holm, 2010). Thus, Holm (2010) utilized a blend of qualitative methods, techniques, and data sources in his study.  The overall data analysis was deductive. At the end of the analysis, Holm (2010) discovered that e-recruitment had significant impact on the recruitment processes of all the companies that were used in the study.

Similarly, Gopalia (2010) in his own study which was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of e-recruitment used Tesco as his own case study. His research methodology includes an exploratory, theory building approach. In other words, an exploratory and qualitative research approach is used by Gopalia in his study. The methods used in collection data were via literature review and case study. After his analysis, Gopalia (2010) discovered that e-recruitment is effective in terms of saving cost of recruitment and selection. According to him, “Case exploration about the effectiveness of online recruitment and selection depicts that it saves time to hire and reduces recruitment cost”. The methodologies used by Holm and Gopalia can be employed collectively in a different research that will enable us to understand more about the effects of e-recruitment on the cost, time and efficiency of an organization.

Facts and statistics about e-recruitment

Even though e-recruitment is a relatively new technology, a significant rise in its adoption has been recorded.  About 95% of the Global 500 companies now use e-recruitment as the main method of employing new workers (Barber, 2006; Kim et al, 2009). In Asia and America, the percentage of organizations that uses e-recruitment is put at 96%, while that of Europe is estimated to be 94% (Barber, 2006; Kim et al, 2009). The wide acceptance of e-recruitment by many agencies of the world has made it possible for employers to increase their capability of sourcing and meeting their recruitment objectives much faster.

A statistical analysis conducted by Greenspan (2003), shows a breakdown of those that uses e-recruitment as follows: 26% for executives or managers, 26% for technical workers, 19% for professionals and a mere 5 and 7% for fulltime students and blue collar workers respectively. Evidence of about 43% of job seekers, who seek jobs online claim to have at least 10 years of work experience and half of those are looking to score jobs in the range of mid to senior level management (Gill, 2001). The databases of many online agencies are currently overflowing with resumes. Monster.com alone has about eleven million resumes that are very much available for employers. This explains why about 90% of those businesses that make use of the services offer by these online agencies are willing to renew their subscriptions annually. Gill (2001) observed that this is a great way for business to save their operational costs. He believed that between $ 50,000 and $60,000 can be save yearly by organizations that made use of these online agencies (Gill, 2001). About 56% of prospective employees that are interviewed by majority of companies are now known to be generated by these online agencies (SkillRoad Inc, 2012).  About 46% of those interviewed are usually hired (SkillRoad Inc, 2012). This shows the high success rate of using online methods of recruitment.


The highly competitive nature of today’s business world means that every organizations, companies and business establishment must strive to attract and retain the best and brightest employees. One of the surest ways of accomplishing this feat is by making use of the internet. E-recruitment is currently being adopted by an ever increasing number of organizations because of its cost effectiveness, fastness and efficiency. Despite its immense benefits, e-recruitment should not replace the traditional methods of recruitment. Rather, it should serve as a supplement to carter for the loopholes of the traditional recruitment methods. However, a lot still need to be done to make e-recruitment more effective and reliable. For instance, despite the technical strength of e-recruitment, it is also very important to incorporate a deep understanding of human resources into the structural designs of recruitment websites. It is also necessary for e-recruitment websites to have strong ability of market planning and promotion so as to be able to attract high quality applicants. Online recruitment service system is still in the early stages of development and needs further development to improve.

Appendix 1 – Summary of previous research into the main effects of e-recruitment on the recruitment process as compiled by Holm (2010)

Changes in the recruitment process

Changes in the recruitment process performance

The recruitment process turns into a marketing process of selling jobs, with more activities and resources dedicated to building company reputation, Internet communications, and relationship marketing. Automation of the entire   recruitment process. Introduction of sophisticated on-line screening systems. Automated systems for contacting applicants.

Shorter   recruitment cycles. Bigger pool of experienced candidates. Efficient selection of best candidates.

Change   from batch mode to continuous mode, with some activities being performed   concurrently. Automated pre-screening. Long-term candidate relationship management.

Cost   savings, better efficiency, increased convenience for recruiters and clients,   and shift of focus on effectiveness.

Introduction of new processes, e.g. web-based pre-screening. “Just-in-time” recruiting on   demand.

Lower costs per hire. Shorter recruiting lead times. Improved quality of candidates.

Appendix 2 – Case Studies of companies used by Holm (2010)

Fictitious name

Primary Industry


Number of Employees

Scandifin Danadrinco

Banking and investment

Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages

Shareholding company

Shareholding company




Design, production, and installation of energy systems

Shareholding company



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