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Sample Dissertations

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Dissertation Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices

Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices at RMC Global

In this era of global competition, the importance of Human Resource Management practices in the context of organizational performance has been realized to a great extent. In last few decades, great research has been conducted in the field of HRM and its relation to organizational performance. The researchers have found a strong positive relationship between human resource practices and enhanced organizational performance. Primary purpose of this research was to investigate the relation between human resource activities and organizational performance at RMC Global Company. Data was collected through mail questionnaire sent to employees of HR department of RMC Global Company, UK. 51 filled responses or questionnaires were received and utilized in the analysis of this study. Overall research methodology of the study was based on onion model presented by Sounders. According to analysis, employees believed that they are provided an opportunity to participate in decision making, of business which affected their performance. Findings of the study show a positive relationship between human resource practices and organizational performance. It depicts that RMC employees participate in innovative technologies to a great extent in order to contribute positively in the organizational performance. Further, the findings can draw a roadmap for the managers of UK insurance companies in order to appreciate the efforts of human resources to get sustaining competitive advantage in the industry. In conclusion, HR practices have positive relation with the organizational performance. However, it is recommended that RMC Global Company should provide employees with more conducive and learning environment. Entire HRM activities should be executed in a best way in order to enhance the organizational performance. Aims and objectives of the study have indispensable importance and define various implications of this study, its beneficiaries, as well as the study outcomes. The main aim of the study is to examine how HR activities impact on performance of RMC Global Company.

Dissertation Objectives

  • Identification and investigation of various aspects of human resource management
  • Investigation of the impact of HR activities on individuals’ performance at RMC Global Company
  • Examination of the impact of HR activities on RMC Global Company’s performance
  • Suggesting of an effective implementation plan of HR practices to future performance of RMC Global Company and other insurance companies

All of these objectives are specific, measureable, reliable, attainable, and actionable that will contribute to the enhancement of RMC Global Company’s performance. These will also help the RMC Global Company to gain enduring growth in insurance sector.

Human Resources Dissertation Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices

Human-Resources

As a result of growing forces which appeared in response of rapid change in the business environment, the direction of the policy is steered towards an assortment of reactions between industrial organizations, the rate of technological invention, variation in consumer demand as well as Globalization of markets. Manufacturers are the features that amplified the vitality of the competitive environment within which organizations are required to retort. Today a competitive and efficient human resource is important for the power of organizations that is facing the trials of business. Nowadays, the implication of containing a competitive human resource is equal to the achievement of organizations. An effective and competent human resource would produce productive and quality individuals that will ultimately decrease the difficulties associated with human resource just like absenteeism, turnover and job dissatisfaction of employees. What is meant by human resource management? Actually Human resource management is a philosophy, a policy, practice and a system which can stimulate individuals who are working in an organization. Activities of HRM are composed of staffing, development, performance appraisal, training and compensation management, health and safety as well as industrial relations.

HRM practices are the activities which can inspire the workers also enhance employees’ levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In the early 1980s the Concept of HRM became prevalent, there was growing educational concern in the area of research and concept. Initial models of HRM were mostly conceptual lacking considerable experimental indication for their rationality. Decade of 1990s perceived a considerable change in the concept as experiential research began which initiated the process to probe link between performance and HRM practices. In modern times the research provides empirical confirmation of the relationship among performance and practices of HRM. Many researchers also contain a cumulative concern in the notion of HRM practices as well as the strongest connection among organizational performance and HRM practices. Basically, the concept of HRM surfaced in 80s from out-dated personnel management practices. Typically personnel management was mostly considered a connecting the recital of simple functions of staffing, frequently steered, devoid of concern to other organisational actions as well as devoid of arrangement of administrative objectives. HRM is like a business that is progressed as an allowance of the typical role of personnel in the form of a very operative organisational action. A human resource audit is a single system that is used to assess and evaluates all the activities in the arena of human resource management. Its sub-grouping is not perfect and methods of human resource assessment are not acknowledged evenly in the textbooks of modern times. Though, the literature of the combination of human resource auditing along with some other H.R assessment methods contain indication for the determinations of comparison and discussion.

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I do hope you enjoyed reading this post on human resource management practices at RMC Global. There are many other titles available in the HRM dissertation collection that should be of interest to human resource management students and CIPD professional. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of HRM such as employee engagement, HRM Theory, absenteeism, training and development to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Advertising Dissertations

Advertising Dissertations

I have been asked by marketing students who have purchased marketing dissertations from our website to write a blog post relating to advertising within the marketing arena. With this in mind, I have taken a couple of hours to construct this post on advertising.

Definitions of Advertising

Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. It is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media.

Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging ‘environmentally friendly’ behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game and television viewing promotion, and a “lazy man” routine through a loss of exercise.

Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

Advertising serves three main purposes:

  1. To get or win new customers.
  2. To increase use of products or services among existing customers.
  3. To help potential customers make a choice among competing brands.

Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products useful to them. Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using various media types, with different techniques and methods most suited. For every organization and every product or service, advertising tends to fulfill a specific goal or objective. Nevertheless on the general front, advertising is a mechanism that fulfills all, some or one of the three major functions:

Firstly advertising has an informing nature – about organizations, about products and services, about the environment, the society, the trends in society and many more aspects of life. This deals with the cognitive context of the target audience in which they grasp the information and channelize it according to their own comprehension and predilection.

Secondly advertising provides the incentives to viewers for them to engage in action. This deals with the emotional dimension of the target audience, which concentrates on touching and persuading the consumers rather than informing and apprising them.

The third function of advertising is to provide constant reminders and reinforcements to generate the desired behavior the advertiser wants from them. This is a particularly effective function in the long run as reminders and reinforcements register in the consumers’ minds, becoming the base on which they shape their future decisions. There are a few reasons for advertising some of which are like this:

  • Increasing the sales of the product / service • Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image
  • Communicating a change in the current product
  • Introduction of a new service
  • Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company
Advertising Dissertations Advertising Dissertations

Advertising-Dissertations

Types of Advertising

There are types of advertising objectives which are:

  • Informative advertising where the objective is to build primary demand in the introduction or pioneering stage of a product
  • Persuasive advertising where the objective is to build selective or comparative demand in the competitive or growth stage of a product.
  • Reminder advertising with mature products and reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice.

And there are the following major advertising media types:

  • Print advertising – newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, yellow pages, newsletters etc.
  • Outdoor advertising – billboards, kiosks, trade-shows, events etc.
  • Broadcast advertising – TV, Radio, mobile (back-lit) vans or autos etc.
  • Online advertising – Telephone, SMS/MMS, emails, pop ups, banner ads, video ads etc.

Objectives of Advertising

Four main Objectives of advertising are:

  1. Trial
  2. Continuity
  3. Brand switch
  4. Switching back

Let’s take a look on these various types of objectives.

Trial: the companies which are in their introduction stage generally work for this objective. The trial objective is the one which involves convincing the customers to buy the new product introduced in the market. Here, the advertisers use flashy and attractive ads to make customers take a look on the products and purchase for trials.

Continuity: this objective is concerned about keeping the existing customers to stick on to the product. The advertisers here generally keep on bringing something new in the product and the advertisement so that the existing customers keep buying their products.

Brand switch: this objective is basically for those companies who want to attract the customers of the competitors. Here, the advertisers try to convince the customers to switch from the existing brand they are using to their product.

Switching back: this objective is for the companies who want their previous customers back, who have switched to their competitors. The advertisers use different ways to attract the customers back like discount sale, new advertise, some reworking done on packaging, etc.

Advertising Management

Advertising simply put is telling and selling the product. Advertising Management though is a complex process of employing various media to sell a product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses the media campaigns that help sell the product.

Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods and services.

As mentioned above, advertising management begins from the market research phase. At this point, the data produced by marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific product.

Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the launch of the product.

The Strengths of Advertising as a Marketing Technique?

Advertising, being an utterly vital segment of the promotional dimension of marketing, has its share of strengths in its role as a marketing technique. There are other elements in the promotional mix as well such as sales promotion, publicity and direct marketing, nevertheless advertising has an exclusive strength to reach a mass audience.

The reach factor is very important that accentuates the significance of advertising in the process of marketing as well as branding. Furthermore advertising is an essential tool to introduce products for the first time in the market. Not only that but it also illustrates any modifications and alterations in the product or service that it is advertising. Moreover it proves to be a very effective source of reminding and reinforcing the impact of its communication of the product, not letting the consumers forget about it. Last but not the least it persuades the target audience and shapes their buying decisions.

Advertising gives companies and businesses the opportunity to build up a brand and an identity. The distinct adverts in both TV and print form are instantly recognizable as the company’s own and give it an identity as a clean, modern and reputable brand. Advertisements need to relate to current trends and sell both a product individually as well as the company as a whole. If an advertisement succeeds at both it can help draw an audience to the product or service and build a relationship between the consumer and company. Establishing this connection should lead to a boost in sales for the business.

AIDA Model: Measurement of Effectiveness of Advertisement

This theory is based on the premise that during a sales presentation, the prospect consciously goes through four different stages: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. The components of this theory believe that the salesperson should design his presentation in such a manner which takes care of all these stages of the process of selling. The details of these components are as follows:

A: Attention

The salesperson should attract the prospect to his presentation before he actually goes into the details of the same. This is to ensure that the prospect becomes receptive to the presentation.
Here the need for securing attention is must. It’s a fact that usually the prospect may be busy in his routine jobs or daily assignments. Thus, before meeting the salesperson, the prospect’s mind may be engaged in something other than the concerned product, about which the salesperson in going to talk. Unless the salesperson involves the prospect’s mind in the presentation, his total effort may go unnoticed or unregistered. Drawing the prospect’s attention, therefore, is as good as to detach him from other assignments and involving him in the presentation, both physically and mentally, so as to gain maximum from the sales meeting.

I: Interest

Once the salesperson has successfully gained the prospect’s attention, he should maintain the interest of the prospect throughout the presentation. In other words, the salesperson should ensure that the prospect remains glued to his presentation throughout its length and that he does not wander away from the same. The salesperson should be aware of the interest, likes, dislikes, attitude and motivation of the prospect and should proceed with the presentation, keeping in view all the factors.
D: Desire

To create a strong desire in the prospect’s mind to purchase his product is the next important step. The salesperson should consciously try to bring the prospect into this stage of readiness on the point of buying his product. He should concentrate on projecting the benefits of his product to the prospect. He should go even to the extent of presenting benefits according to the motivation of the prospect. The salesperson should also be prepared to anticipate the resistance to his sales presentation in terms of objections or questions from the prospect. Not only that, he should be prepared with several answers and explanations to the anticipated objections.

A: Action

Once the salesperson has been successful in taking his prospect through the three stages, he should induce them into actually buying the product. Sometimes even after going through the three stages of Attention, Interest and Desire; the prospect may still have some doubt or some disinterest which will stop him from taking the final decision of actually buying the product. Hence, it becomes an important task for the salesperson to help his prospect in taking the final decision. At this stage; the salesperson tries to push the prospect into a situation to take a decision; and the deal is closed skillfully and successfully. This is what is expected of a salesperson in this stage.

Importance of Advertising

Advertising plays a very important role in today’s age of competition. Advertising is one thing which has become a necessity for everybody in today’s day to day life, be it the producer, the traders, or the customer. Many companies rely on advertising these days to boost sales of their products or services, to build a connection with their audience and to create competition with their rival firms.

Advertising is important for the customers

Advertising plays a very important role in customers’ life. Customers are the people who buy the product only after they are made aware of the products available in the market. If the product is not advertised, no customer will come to know what products are available and will not buy the product even if the product was for their benefit. One more thing is that advertising helps people find the best products for themselves, their kids, and their family. When they come to know about the range of products, they are able to compare the products and buy so that they get what they desire after spending their valuable money. Thus, advertising is important for the customers. Current consumers can also be kept up to date with the latest products and services available to them.

Advertising is important for the seller and companies producing the products

Advertising plays very important role for the producers and the sellers of the products, because:

  • Advertising helps increasing sales
  • Advertising helps producers or the companies to know their competitors and plan accordingly to meet up the level of competition.
  • If any company wants to introduce or launch a new product in the market, advertising will make a ground for the product. Advertising helps making people aware of the new product so that the consumers come and try the product.
  • Advertising helps creating goodwill for the company and gains customer loyalty after reaching a mature age.
  • The demand for the product keeps on coming with the help of advertising and demand and supply become a never ending process.

Advertising is important for the society

Advertising helps educating people. There are some social issues also which advertising deals with like immoral labor, liquor consumption, smoking, family planning education, etc. thus, advertising plays a very important role in society.

You will find many dissertations relating to advertising in the marketing dissertation section of the website. Below is a list of some advertising dissertations we have available:

Dissertation – Influence of Advertising on Consumer Behaviour

Dissertation – Advertising and Semiotics as Meaningful Signs

Dissertation – Effects of Advertising and Its Impact on the Consumption of Alcohol by Young People

Dissertation – How Does Zara Sustain Competitive Advantage In Europe Without Advertising?

Dissertation – Creative Advertising versus Direct Marketing

Dissertation – How Does Celebrity Advertising Impact Fashion Consumers?

Dissertation – Effects of E-Marketing and Online Animated Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Dissertation – Can Mass Media Advertising Increase Consumer Perception To Better Brand Credibility? An Investigation into Coca Cola’s UK Advertising Strategies

Dissertation – Brand Advertising and Celebrity Endorsement: The Impact on Consumer Buying Behaviour

Dissertation – Importance of Advertising in the Retail Industry

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Business Dissertation Operational Risk Management at Airports

The Effects of Operational Risk Management at Airports: The Introduction of New Baggage Logistics at Heathrow Airport

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The importance that is held by risk management within an airline just cannot be denied. The fact of the matter is that airlines are regularly exposed to countless different risks on a regular basis. Every single one of these risks has the potential to impact customers, operations, security, and corporate value. These risks, along with many others have enhanced the overall importance of airline risk management. It has managed to become one of the most focal points within famous airlines and airports across the world.

When taken in general terms, risk management is basically said to be a means of adopting an easily systematic as well as a consistent approach to be focused on the management of risks, all of which are being faced by a particular organization or business. On the other hand, when it comes to operational risks, these are any and all risks, which are associated with elements including human error, system failure, as well as inadequate procedures and controls particularly in cases of the process of business transactions and loss of reputation. Moreover, it can further be broken down into a number of sub-sections that are inclusive of technology risk, operations risk, malicious risk, reporting risk etc. Also, operational risk management is associated with any and all risks that are incurred by the internal activities of a firm, along with a focus over their ample management.

Risk Management Airports Business Dissertation Operational Risk Management at Airports

Risk Management Airports

A major difference between operational risk management and other forms of risks is that it is not focused upon the generation of profits. It is more so based on the fact that organizations need to acknowledge that their employees are imperfect and can make mistakes that might leverage risks for the organization. The aim of this study is to identify the risks that are faced by an airport or airline each time that a new baggage system is introduced, to identify the effective operational processes of a new baggage system, and to analyze how the risk management theory can be applied in baggage handling automation process in airports. The hypothesis of this study is based upon the fact that risk management has a crucial role to play in operations. But unfortunately if the people are not trained properly for the functions given, several problems can occur. There are many different operational risks in that need to be identified and dealt with each time that a new initiative is taken in every industry, including aviation.

I hope you enjoyed reading this post on the effects of operational risk management at airports. There are many other titles available in the business management and MBA dissertation collection that should be of interest to MBA students and academic professional. There are many dissertation titles that relate to other aspects of business such as strategy, leadership, international business, mergers and acquisitions to name a few. It took a lot of effort to write this post and I would be grateful if you could share this post via Facebook and Twitter. Feel free to add your thoughts in the comments section. Thank you.

Dissertation Importance of Sustainable Construction and Waste Minimisation

The Importance of Sustainable Construction and Waste Minimisation

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The idea of sustainable construction has become a widely considered topic in the construction industry of recent with varying sectors of the construction industry looking closely at this topic. Sustainable construction looks into how the construction and whole life span of a building can expected in a sustainable manner from the type of material used to construct the building to how the building will create energy and recycle goods. Historically, designers and clients have become more and more aware of the surrounding environment of buildings and how the construction and technology of buildings can be sustainable to their surrounding environment. An area of sustainable construction which is currently considered in construction the amount of waste arising from projects. Sustainable construction looks at the reduction of waste and how the waste on a construction site can be kept down to a low minimum. This dissertation is an addition to a number of other research papers on this topic of sustainable construction and waste minimisation to date. The following literature will look into how waste can be reduced through sustainable construction and material choice, and should be a helpful reference to those working in the construction industry who are taking part in the design and construction of a project. This aim of this dissertation is to show the ideas and practices of sustainable construction and waste minimisation within construction projects and the different ways of implementing the initiatives of waste minimisation and sustainability.

Construction Waste Minimisation Dissertation Importance of Sustainable Construction and Waste Minimisation

Construction Waste Minimisation

The main aim of this research topic is to determine whether construction projects are becoming more sustainable and whether waste minimisation is being considered by the professionals in the construction industry. The design and construction stages of the construction project will mainly be considered in this literature therefore the attitudes of designers and contractors of construction projects will mainly be shown. The dissertation will look at a sustainable project which has minimal waste levels to illustrate how this has been achieved. The objective of this research topic is to illustrate the views and opinions of the construction professionals in the design stage of the construction project and display their attitude towards sustainable construction and waste minimisation along with illustrating how waste minimisation can be implemented on a project. The introduction to this dissertation has shown the research aims and objectives of this paper, the hypothesis, literature context, and research methodologies needed for this research paper and title. The literature review in this dissertation will give the reader a background of information into sustainable construction and waste minimisation in the construction industry. It will also give the reader an indication of the issues which arise when considering sustainable construction and waste minimisation on a construction project. A case study will be included in the context which will include a construction project which has used sustainable ways of construction and waste minimisation measures in its design. The case study will look at the re-use of waste material on site and how the professionals on site went about construction so that there was a minimal amount of waste generated by the project. A collection of one on one interviews will also be undertaken with different professionals in the construction industry to determine their views and opinions on the topic illustrated in this dissertation.

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Dissertation Proposal Examples

Dissertation Proposal Examples

Many students have asked me the following question: ‘What makes a good dissertation proposal?’ With this in mind, I have taken time out to write what I think a good dissertation proposal comprises of. I have written a handful of dissertations at undergraduate and postgraduate levels and I have used the same dissertation proposal framework and every dissertation proposal I have submitted has been awarded a high grade. In this post, I will write a proposal for an MBA Dissertation and will include all the relevant sections for the proposal. You will find out at first hand that your dissertation proposal will turn out to be a mini project in its own right. It is worthwhile noting that your final dissertation project should not deviate away from your original proposal and research question. Below is the title for the MBA dissertation proposal;

The Informational Relevance Of Corporate Social Responsibility: Does It Impact The Company Workforce Or Profit?

Abstract

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) tactics help the corporations attract talent. CSR helps companies to gain the positive image in social respects as well as financial and other performance parameters. The CSR is an obligation which is totally beyond the required economics and law for a specific organization to follow long term aims which are even good for society. It is the prolonged commitment of a business to ethically behave and contribute to development national economy while advancing the life quality of company employees and also the local community and the whole society in total. The main purpose of this research proposal is to analyze the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility that UK’s largest and leading supermarket TESCO has enforced in its management system. The research proposal discusses the impact of corporate social responsibility on the workforce of an organization and significance of this practice in current market and benefits/limitations brought by CSR to the society.

Introduction

One of the remarkable developments that is being observed in twenty-first century in the marketplace is that the businesses are showing concerns about ethical issues and human rights as much as they are about being responsible in the issues relating to environment, social concerns and economic growth. Besides, there is increasing signs of legislative and other initiatives by the members of the public to exert pressure on these business organizations to emphasize on ethical business conduct regarding processes and actions. There is abundant correlation between financial and social performance of business organizations (Kanji, 2010).

The nature of benefits and their magnitude are higher than financial benefits as seen by improved image of such corporations resulting in increased loyalty from consumers and management of risks due to their association of ethical values and confidence in these organizations as involved in actions that are considered as ‘right things’. These include issues related to labor welfare and concerns about health and safety policies. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) tactics help the corporations attract talent. CSR helps companies to gain the positive image in social respects as well as financial and other performance parameters. The main objective of this research proposal is to analyze the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility that UK’s largest and leading supermarket TESCO has enforced in its management system. The research proposal discusses the impact of corporate social responsibility on the profit of an organization and significance of this practice in current market.

Research Questions

Does corporate social responsibility impact the workforce of an organization and how significant it is in current market to meet/accomplish the customer and employee related expectations?

Research Aim and Objectives

Aim

The main aim of the research is to deeply examine the significance of corporate social responsibility and the intensity of its growth among various organizations. The research paper intends to critically examine the corporate social responsibility initiatives taken by TESCO and evaluates the efficiency and limitations of these practices.

Objectives

  • Examine the importance of corporate social responsibilities in organizations of 21st century.
  • Evaluate the characteristics attributions of corporate social responsibilities
  • Discuss and analyze the dimensions of corporate social responsibilities
  • Examine the effectiveness and limitations of corporate social responsibilities of TESCO

Company Background

TESCO is UK’s largest retail business and is recognized as one of the leading supermarket chains in the world. Now it is planning to open about thousand discount stores across the US. It is planning to invest $2.5 billion in the span of over five years for its US business foray and presently coming out with investment of $250 million (£120 million) currently. The entry and expansion plan of TESCO in US and worldwide it to directly compete with US department stores giant, Wal-Mart. TESCO is one of prominent organizations which is known for its various types of initiatives related corporate social responsibility and the advancement it brought due to these initiatives to society (Glancey, 2008).

Literature Review

In the beginning the Corporate Social Responsibility practiced by the corporations was limited to building schools for their employees’ children and housing arrangement for their staff and workers. There is changed perspective in the corporations about enhanced actions displaying CSR by variety of actions. It is now commonly realized by many companies that they can no more ignore the social responsibility angle. There is lot of hard thinking on the part of corporations on how to discharge these social responsibilities in appropriate ways. These efforts have made CSR to enter in corporate lexicon and a means of getting more favorable attention. Though being ethical sounds great as a moral principle, but there will be changes when it comes to their practical implementation.

Murray (2006) describes that there are many issues and questions to be answered to determine what the best means of choosing the right action is and how to implement it. But there will be different expectations from different sections of society. Besides, social responsibility acts cost lot of money which has to be carefully considered. This has to be weighed in terms of costs that would be borne by not being socially responsible as well (Murray, 2006). A firm which does not show ethical responsibility is in the danger of negative valuation from the stakeholders who may change the ways of communicating with the firm. In severe cases the suppliers may refuse to supply the goods and consumers may stop patronizing such firms which will bring direct loss or costs to the company. These considerations show that the company has to view their social responsibility investment in a comprehensive as to total effects on the company fortunes in the present days of keen awareness about company performance in the area of ethical and socially responsible conduct (Delios, 2010).

Corporate Social Responsibility Failures: An Overview

There are instances where the failure on CSR front made the companies to suffer huge losses to themselves as well as to the individuals and society. Bhopal gas tragedy in 1984 caused death of thousands of people and many were handicapped due to leakage of poisonous gas. General Electric was responsible for polluting Hudson River and failed to clean it up. Company is still engaged in legal battle on allocation of liability but has not cleaned up the mess. This is also due to the financial burden of regulation that can affect the national economy. This is evident in Australian government’s unwillingness to accept Kyoto Protocol citing the loss to national economy and to its national interests. It argued that accepting Kyoto Protocols would make more losses to Australian interests than to any other OECD countries. There is also criticism of CSR on the fact that companies do pay taxes to the government so that government has to take measures to safeguard people and society from adverse effects on environment (Ramchander, 2012).

Lange (2012) describe that usually, attention to CSR is brought only by the eruption of a crisis. This is seen in Exxon Valdez incident in Alaska in 1989, where the environmental management issues came to be highlighted and given importance in public discussions. Issue of lead poisoning with paint employed by giant toy company Mattel forced it to recall millions of toys. This resulted in the company to incorporate risk management and new quality control processes. Same is the case of Magellan Metals which was responsible for death of thousands of people due to lead poisoning which forced the company to stop the operations (Lange, 2012).

Dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility

Organizational Strategic Planning Systems and Social Accountability and Social Investment

Strategic planning systems determine the quality of management regarding processes and people. So the company has to place policies to identify and monitor the ethical and human resources strategies. These must also evaluate the socio-economic trends of the community and exhibit required measure of social and economic responsibility. They must have proper reporting systems on the social investments and social accountability. Attention must be given for environment protection and other issues and should have respected the human rights of public and the employees (Bhattacharya & Korschun, 2012).

Dissertation Proposal Dissertation Proposal Examples

Dissertation Proposal

According to Dowling (2012) the social accountability of corporation is measured in terms of improvement of workplaces and the communities. So it focuses on improving the social infrastructure and helping the community with new technology and programs for imparting skills and education to the communities and thereby ensures sustained improvement. It should also imbibe the culture of transparency in business activities and also a system that prevents corruption and underhand dealings, interest shown in overall development of communities, planning the provision of investments in education, healthcare and other improvements. In general, business must meet the expectations of the society in providing education and being responsible for their actions (Dowling, 2012).

Environment protection and Sustainability- EPS

Rivoli (2011) explains that business activities can be subjected to allegations of negligence and liability for causing harm to the environment. Apart from general issues concerning the pollution of air, water and disposal of toxic wastes, issues such as Bhopal, Love Canal and Exxon Valdez show the extent of environmental responsibilities the companies have to bear in mind. While everyone agrees on the responsibility of business for the protection of natural environment, there is also a claim for making them responsible for natural world. Though the businesses have direct responsibility to human life, sometimes there are calls for making them responsible for protection of overall natural world as well. According to this view the businesses should also have responsibility to protect plants, animals and ecosystems- as these are considered as ethical values- the businesses must also address these issues. For example, reduction in usage of paper may be done for economic purposes, but this action will show that the company is caring about environment also (Rivoli, 2011).

Corporate Governance and Economic Responsibility (CGER)

Corporate governance addresses the issues regarding the responsibilities of top management of the company to investors. In the last decade there is increased awareness about the corporate governance and scrutiny of shareholders about company policies in this regard. These have resulted in shareholder’s strong movements especially regarding the management of pension funds, religious and socially responsibility investment pressure groups and institutional investors. These forces are trying to change the management behavior including bringing about excellent corporate governance standards. They would like to implement these policies regarding corporate policies about employment ethical policies, community involvement and environmental issues. Basically, business has to attend to following responsibilities to its stakeholders;

  • Profitability – Business earns profits for its investors by the activities of adding values to raw materials by process them with the help of machines and labor force.
  • Transparency – A transparent business policy is designed to provide the necessary information to the concerned parties regarding financial position and strategies, thus helping the direct stakeholders (Waller, 2011).
  • Nondiscrimination – In this context, the business uses same yardsticks to all its customers, suppliers, employees and dealers.
  • Sustainability – It ensures that the business has sustainable growth by constant improvement in processes and having long lasting relationships with customers and suppliers.
  • Ethics and Human Resources: (HER): Business ethics is concerned with having policies of ethical business conduct. This issue has got prominence in the recent business affairs with the evolution of principle of CSR.

Even the consumers are more aware of the environmental and ethical considerations about the companies whose products they buy. So businesses must accommodate ethical practices in their business strategies. It is essential for the corporations to conduct ethical training sessions helping them to be aware of ethical and environmental impacts of their actions. It is essential to study the total impact of all aspects of supply chain management and labor practices (like working hours) and must be able to avoid labor exploitation, inhumane treatment and ensuring hygienic and safe working environment to the workers. It also involves avoiding or prohibiting discrimination based on sex, age and race. Transparency must be maintained in issues such as fund raising and volunteering for community activities (Wagner, 2009).

CSR in TESCO

TESCO has offered an interesting case for understanding how the management can benefit by involving in Corporate Social Responsibility activities applied in their business plans. TESCO shows how these issues are addressed in external and internal activities. The external activities the company is involved are in local employment and regeneration projects and detailed plan for initiative of linking the sales with donation of computers to schools and establishment of ethical trading practices with various suppliers. This policy must be seen in the context of the criticism of big supermarket businesses which were accused of forcing the suppliers like vulnerable farmers to sell at very low prices and then selling them at high prices to make unreasonably high profits from such deals. Though the investigative reports have failed to corroborate any evidence about these baseless charges, the supermarkets shave taken steps to assure the public that they follow ethical practices in this regards and are able to get public support.

In line with above policy, TESCO released Corporate Social Responsibility review for the year 2001-2002 commenting in its Annual Report. In the CSR Review the company showed a strong emphasis on the external activities such as environmental and social performance as termed by the Chief Executives for these activities. The issues cover the environmental issues such as efforts of the company in recycling and measures taken to improve the energy efficiency across all the processes. It also mentioned the community activities with CSR goals such as donating computers to the schools and working with authorities for “Regeneration” program which offered to train the unemployed people who could be employed in their stores (Krumwiede, 2012).

Internal CSR activities highlighted in the Annual Report show the steps taken to impart better health and improved safety measures and employment diversity and offering occupational pension scheme. It signed an agreement in 1998, with the recognized labor union, the Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers- USDAW, for handling issues about restructuring programs which gave a central mechanism to deal with this and other issues. In fact, Bill Connor, General Secretary of USDAW, commented that the agreement is the beginning of a partnership that giving the opportunity for mutual consultation and involvement. Similarly, John Monks, General Secretary of TUC even declared that poor employees should join TESCO and understand the good relation of partnership between the union and the management.

Research Methodology

The research study will be based on implementing Positivism Analysis. Positivism is based on methods and philosophical approaches that hold that in social and natural sciences, it is sensory experiences and logical treatments that are the valid sources of all useful information. This does not accept as valid techniques of gaining knowledge the methods of the Meditative and Intuitional efforts to gain any knowledge.

Positivism holds that the goal of knowledge is to define and understand the phenomena we experience. The only purpose of a study is to limit to areas which can be observed and measured. From a Positivist’s viewpoint one cannot understand anything beyond this. It means Positivism explains the relationship between philosophy and logic. As it is impossible to directly measure or monitor the emotions and thoughts they are not the valid topics required for scientific analysis. The things that could not be measures, such as people’s emotions and the nature of people’s thinking are of no use in research using positivism research methodology (Silverman, 2004).

Positivism looks at the science as a way to arrive at the Truth and also a way to comprehend the universe so that one will be able to predict and control it. The physical world and the Universe operate on the Cause and Effect principle which can be easily distinguished with the help of unique scientific research method applied. Science is just a mechanical phenomenon. With the help of deductive reasoning it is possible to postulate theories which can be practically tested. Observation and measurement are the heart of scientific methods. But the main approach of science is the Research and it is the effort to recognize the natural laws by direct observation and management (Churchill & Iacobucci, 2009).

Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

The research proposal will implement the qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to execute the research purposes. The data to be analyzed in the research topic is based on the interviews with the employees of TESCO. Additionally, TESCO published annual reports and journals are used in the same context.

Survey

Also a survey having consumers and the employees of TESCO as participants will be conducted by making them answer a questionnaire featuring ten different relevant questions associated with corporate social responsibility of TESCO. The main intention of this survey is to collect the various views and thoughts of TESCO employees and the customers. The survey data obtained will be critically analyzed to draw the conclusion for the research study conducted. The participants will be given a questionnaire with multiple answers for each question. The survey is one of the efficient techniques which can be used as a means of primary data collection to carefully examine the real time data obtained from the actual individuals associated with the system.

Interview

Interview conducted with employees in management department will be the basis for the research findings. It is required to gather information effectively. Interview offers the best method to gather information directly. These are done with each employee in private. If there is a time constraint, then group interviews can be done. The data collected will be maintained highly confidential and the collected data will be used for the purpose of research study only.

Secondary data Collection

The research will also rely up on the information and data collected by:

  • Online books
  • Journals
  • Articles

Ethical Considerations

The research proposal given totally abides every safety and privacy related considerations by assuring that every privacy acts and safety measurements are followed thoroughly throughout the whole process of research study. The detail collected by employees or the consumers of the organization will not be no where misused or used for any other purpose. The research study performed and the data to be given in the dissertation will comply with the originality policies outlined at the university.

References

Bhattacharya, C., & Korschun, D. (2012) What Really Drives Value In Corporate Responsibility? McKinsey Quarterly, 33, 33-89

Churchill, G. A., & Iacobucci, D. (2009) Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009

Delios, A. (2010) How Can Organizations Be Competitive but Dare to Care? Academy of Management Perspectives; 16, 12-18

Dowling, G. (2012) Corporate Reputations: Built In Or Bolted On? California Management Review; 39, 34-90

Glancey, J. (2008) Save Us From This Tesco Terror. Building Design, 14, 77-109

Kanji, G. K. (2010) Corporate Social Responsibility in a Global Economy. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 22, 33

Krumwiede, D. (2012). The Practice of Corporate Social Responsibility in Different Countries: A Study of Firms in Canada, Hungary, Italy, Lebanon, Taiwan and the United States. International Journal of Management, 22-98

LANGE, D. (2012) Academy of Management Review. Understanding Attributions of Corporate Social Irresponsibility, 33

Murray, I. (2006). Fat Is A Free-Will Issue — But For Everything Else, Blame Tesco. Marketing Week, 17, 34-90

Ramchander, S. (2012) The informational relevance of corporate social responsibility: evidence from DS400 index reconstitutions. Strategic Management Journal;, 14(3), 33-89

Rivoli, P. (2011). “First They Ignore You… The Time-Context Dynamic and Corporate Responsibility. California Management Review, 34-89

Silverman, D. (2004). Qualitative research: theory, method and practice (Vol. II). London: SAGE.

Wagner, T. (2009) Corporate Hypocrisy: Overcoming the Threat of Inconsistent Corporate Social Responsibility Perceptions. Journal of Marketing; 8, 33-89

Waller, R. L. (2011). Framing and counter framing the Issue of Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Communication, 10, 34-89