I have been asked by marketing students who have purchased marketing dissertations from our website to write a blog post relating to advertising within the marketing arena. With this in mind, I have taken a couple of hours to construct this post on advertising.
Definitions of Advertising
Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them. Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertising is bringing a product (or service) to the attention of potential and current customers. It is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, etc.
Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media.
Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action, such as encouraging ‘environmentally friendly’ behaviors, and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption, video game and television viewing promotion, and a “lazy man” routine through a loss of exercise.
Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Several types of mass media are television, internet, radio, news programs, and published pictures and articles.
Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Non-commercial advertisers that spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.
Advertising serves three main purposes:
- To get or win new customers.
- To increase use of products or services among existing customers.
- To help potential customers make a choice among competing brands.
Advertising is the best way to communicate to the customers. Advertising helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products useful to them. Advertising is for everybody including kids, young and old. It is done using various media types, with different techniques and methods most suited. For every organization and every product or service, advertising tends to fulfill a specific goal or objective. Nevertheless on the general front, advertising is a mechanism that fulfills all, some or one of the three major functions:
Firstly advertising has an informing nature – about organizations, about products and services, about the environment, the society, the trends in society and many more aspects of life. This deals with the cognitive context of the target audience in which they grasp the information and channelize it according to their own comprehension and predilection.
Secondly advertising provides the incentives to viewers for them to engage in action. This deals with the emotional dimension of the target audience, which concentrates on touching and persuading the consumers rather than informing and apprising them.
The third function of advertising is to provide constant reminders and reinforcements to generate the desired behavior the advertiser wants from them. This is a particularly effective function in the long run as reminders and reinforcements register in the consumers’ minds, becoming the base on which they shape their future decisions. There are a few reasons for advertising some of which are like this:
- Increasing the sales of the product / service • Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image
- Communicating a change in the current product
- Introduction of a new service
- Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company
Types of Advertising
There are types of advertising objectives which are:
- Informative advertising where the objective is to build primary demand in the introduction or pioneering stage of a product
- Persuasive advertising where the objective is to build selective or comparative demand in the competitive or growth stage of a product.
- Reminder advertising with mature products and reinforcement advertising which seeks to assure current purchasers that they have made the right choice.
And there are the following major advertising media types:
- Print advertising – newspapers, magazines, brochures, fliers, yellow pages, newsletters etc.
- Outdoor advertising – billboards, kiosks, trade-shows, events etc.
- Broadcast advertising – TV, Radio, mobile (back-lit) vans or autos etc.
- Online advertising – Telephone, SMS/MMS, emails, pop ups, banner ads, video ads etc.
Objectives of Advertising
Four main Objectives of advertising are:
- Brand switch
- Switching back
Let’s take a look on these various types of objectives.
Trial: the companies which are in their introduction stage generally work for this objective. The trial objective is the one which involves convincing the customers to buy the new product introduced in the market. Here, the advertisers use flashy and attractive ads to make customers take a look on the products and purchase for trials.
Continuity: this objective is concerned about keeping the existing customers to stick on to the product. The advertisers here generally keep on bringing something new in the product and the advertisement so that the existing customers keep buying their products.
Brand switch: this objective is basically for those companies who want to attract the customers of the competitors. Here, the advertisers try to convince the customers to switch from the existing brand they are using to their product.
Switching back: this objective is for the companies who want their previous customers back, who have switched to their competitors. The advertisers use different ways to attract the customers back like discount sale, new advertise, some reworking done on packaging, etc.
Advertising simply put is telling and selling the product. Advertising Management though is a complex process of employing various media to sell a product or service. This process begins quite early from the marketing research and encompasses the media campaigns that help sell the product.
Without an effective advertising management process in place, the media campaigns are not that fruitful and the whole marketing process goes for a toss. Hence, companies that believe in an effective advertising management process are always a step ahead in terms of selling their goods and services.
As mentioned above, advertising management begins from the market research phase. At this point, the data produced by marketing research is used to identify what types of advertising would be adequate for the specific product.
Gone are the days when there was only print and television advertising was available to the manufacturers. These days apart from print and television, radio, mobile, and Internet are also available as advertising media. Advertising management process in fact helps in defining the outline of the media campaign and in deciding which type of advertising would be used before the launch of the product.
The Strengths of Advertising as a Marketing Technique?
Advertising, being an utterly vital segment of the promotional dimension of marketing, has its share of strengths in its role as a marketing technique. There are other elements in the promotional mix as well such as sales promotion, publicity and direct marketing, nevertheless advertising has an exclusive strength to reach a mass audience.
The reach factor is very important that accentuates the significance of advertising in the process of marketing as well as branding. Furthermore advertising is an essential tool to introduce products for the first time in the market. Not only that but it also illustrates any modifications and alterations in the product or service that it is advertising. Moreover it proves to be a very effective source of reminding and reinforcing the impact of its communication of the product, not letting the consumers forget about it. Last but not the least it persuades the target audience and shapes their buying decisions.
Advertising gives companies and businesses the opportunity to build up a brand and an identity. The distinct adverts in both TV and print form are instantly recognizable as the company’s own and give it an identity as a clean, modern and reputable brand. Advertisements need to relate to current trends and sell both a product individually as well as the company as a whole. If an advertisement succeeds at both it can help draw an audience to the product or service and build a relationship between the consumer and company. Establishing this connection should lead to a boost in sales for the business.
AIDA Model: Measurement of Effectiveness of Advertisement
This theory is based on the premise that during a sales presentation, the prospect consciously goes through four different stages: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action. The components of this theory believe that the salesperson should design his presentation in such a manner which takes care of all these stages of the process of selling. The details of these components are as follows:
The salesperson should attract the prospect to his presentation before he actually goes into the details of the same. This is to ensure that the prospect becomes receptive to the presentation.
Here the need for securing attention is must. It’s a fact that usually the prospect may be busy in his routine jobs or daily assignments. Thus, before meeting the salesperson, the prospect’s mind may be engaged in something other than the concerned product, about which the salesperson in going to talk. Unless the salesperson involves the prospect’s mind in the presentation, his total effort may go unnoticed or unregistered. Drawing the prospect’s attention, therefore, is as good as to detach him from other assignments and involving him in the presentation, both physically and mentally, so as to gain maximum from the sales meeting.
Once the salesperson has successfully gained the prospect’s attention, he should maintain the interest of the prospect throughout the presentation. In other words, the salesperson should ensure that the prospect remains glued to his presentation throughout its length and that he does not wander away from the same. The salesperson should be aware of the interest, likes, dislikes, attitude and motivation of the prospect and should proceed with the presentation, keeping in view all the factors.
To create a strong desire in the prospect’s mind to purchase his product is the next important step. The salesperson should consciously try to bring the prospect into this stage of readiness on the point of buying his product. He should concentrate on projecting the benefits of his product to the prospect. He should go even to the extent of presenting benefits according to the motivation of the prospect. The salesperson should also be prepared to anticipate the resistance to his sales presentation in terms of objections or questions from the prospect. Not only that, he should be prepared with several answers and explanations to the anticipated objections.
Once the salesperson has been successful in taking his prospect through the three stages, he should induce them into actually buying the product. Sometimes even after going through the three stages of Attention, Interest and Desire; the prospect may still have some doubt or some disinterest which will stop him from taking the final decision of actually buying the product. Hence, it becomes an important task for the salesperson to help his prospect in taking the final decision. At this stage; the salesperson tries to push the prospect into a situation to take a decision; and the deal is closed skillfully and successfully. This is what is expected of a salesperson in this stage.
Importance of Advertising
Advertising plays a very important role in today’s age of competition. Advertising is one thing which has become a necessity for everybody in today’s day to day life, be it the producer, the traders, or the customer. Many companies rely on advertising these days to boost sales of their products or services, to build a connection with their audience and to create competition with their rival firms.
Advertising is important for the customers
Advertising plays a very important role in customers’ life. Customers are the people who buy the product only after they are made aware of the products available in the market. If the product is not advertised, no customer will come to know what products are available and will not buy the product even if the product was for their benefit. One more thing is that advertising helps people find the best products for themselves, their kids, and their family. When they come to know about the range of products, they are able to compare the products and buy so that they get what they desire after spending their valuable money. Thus, advertising is important for the customers. Current consumers can also be kept up to date with the latest products and services available to them.
Advertising is important for the seller and companies producing the products
Advertising plays very important role for the producers and the sellers of the products, because:
- Advertising helps increasing sales
- Advertising helps producers or the companies to know their competitors and plan accordingly to meet up the level of competition.
- If any company wants to introduce or launch a new product in the market, advertising will make a ground for the product. Advertising helps making people aware of the new product so that the consumers come and try the product.
- Advertising helps creating goodwill for the company and gains customer loyalty after reaching a mature age.
- The demand for the product keeps on coming with the help of advertising and demand and supply become a never ending process.
Advertising is important for the society
Advertising helps educating people. There are some social issues also which advertising deals with like immoral labor, liquor consumption, smoking, family planning education, etc. thus, advertising plays a very important role in society.
You will find many dissertations relating to advertising in the marketing dissertation section of the website. Below is a list of some advertising dissertations we have available:
Dissertation – Influence of Advertising on Consumer Behaviour
Dissertation – Advertising and Semiotics as Meaningful Signs
Dissertation – Effects of Advertising and Its Impact on the Consumption of Alcohol by Young People
Dissertation – How Does Zara Sustain Competitive Advantage In Europe Without Advertising?
Dissertation – Creative Advertising versus Direct Marketing
Dissertation – How Does Celebrity Advertising Impact Fashion Consumers?
Dissertation – Effects of E-Marketing and Online Animated Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour
Dissertation – Can Mass Media Advertising Increase Consumer Perception To Better Brand Credibility? An Investigation into Coca Cola’s UK Advertising Strategies
Dissertation – Brand Advertising and Celebrity Endorsement: The Impact on Consumer Buying Behaviour
Dissertation – Importance of Advertising in the Retail Industry
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