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Equity Risk Premium (ERP) is defined as the expected return on the stock market in excess of the return on risk-free bond. ERP guides investment managers to decide how their funds should be allocated between stocks and fixed income securities and thereafter to formulate a portfolio of expected returns. ERP can be estimated by 3 methods, namely the Historical Data approach, Gordon Growth Model Approach and the Price Earnings Ratio Approach. The Historical Data Approach utilizes differences over annual returns in stocks and bonds over a long time period to estimate forward ERPs. While the use of historical data offers an easy means of estimation, the need for long periods of historical data to minimize estimation error is a disadvantage to emerging markets. The Gordon Growth Model is forward looking in that it assumes a constant dividend growth rate in the future. This is particularly applicable to developed companies where dividend payouts and real earnings are estimated based on GDP growth.

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